HELP MANUAL


INTRODUCTION

CALIPR is a powerful instrument for collecting and compiling data to determine the preservation needs of collections. Understanding collection needs is the starting place for development of a comprehensive preservation program. CALIPR has been designed to enable institutions without preservation expertise on their staffs to assess the preservation needs of paper-based and audio/visual collections.

This manual leads the user through the design and implementation of a preservation needs assessment survey using the CALIPR web-based software. CALIPR compiles data drawn from a sample survey of the collection and generates a management report to provide important insights into the needs of the collection as a whole and to those parts of the collection of greatest value and at greatest risk of damage and loss. CALIPR assesses, in general terms, what preservation needs to be done; if preservation programming already is in place, CALIPR identifies what further work needs to be done to address unmet needs.

Following an assessment of collection needs, the preservation planner must evaluate the feasibility of meeting those needs in terms of an institution's technical and management capability, as well as available financial and human resources. The results of a feasibility study, coupled with the CALIPR needs assessment survey, yield a preservation program strategy. The strategy is a realistic management approach to developing a preservation program tailored to the needs of the institution and responsive to opportunities and limitations of resources. For more information about preservation planning and programming, consult sources listed in the bibliography.

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USING CALIPR

To start using CALIPR, register at the website as a new user. Following registration, you will have access to the site and database through your password. Please write down and remember where you recorded your password because there are no prompts or reminders to help with forgotten passwords. You then will be guided through the whole survey process, beginning with naming and describing the collection you want to survey, and ending with creating a management report to interpret findings.

Outline of steps in using CALIPR
  1. Name and describe the survey to be done.
  2. Determine how many items to survey.
  3. Create a stack map of the locations where the collection is shelved.
  4. Create a list of random locations to be checked.
  5. Locate items in the stacks.
  6. Set defaults on the survey questionnaire.
  7. Complete the survey questionnaire for each item in the sample.
  8. Create the management report.
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1. Name and describe the survey to be done.

After logging in, click on Define a new sample from the Action List on the left side of the screen and fill in the boxes. Note that you will be asked to specify the type of collection you are surveying (print or audio/visual) because CALIPR uses different survey questionnaires for the two types of collections. If you have both types of materials in one collection, they should be surveyed separately.

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2. Determine how many items to survey.

CALIPR determines preservation needs and establishes priorities for preservation actions based on a sample taken from the collections. Raw data from the sample are compiled and interpreted to assist the institution determine its own preservation needs and priorities, and to enable groups of libraries and archives make quantitative statements about their aggregate preservation needs and priorities for cooperative preservation planning.

A sample is taken from the collections to avoid the high cost and high probability of errors of inventorying large collections (i.e., reviewing every item). If a sample is drawn using random sampling techniques, then inferences about the preservation needs of the whole collection can be made from the sample data with known levels of statistical "confidence." To make a sample truly random, the sampling methodology requires that every item (book, document, film, etc.) in the collection have an equal probability of selection into the sample in order to avoid favoring or excluding parts of the collection about which information is sought.

Generally, the larger the sample, the greater the precision of the estimates. In California cooperative surveys, samples of 100 items per institution are considered adequate to provide estimates sufficiently precise for statewide planning. However, for an institution's own planning purposes a larger sample generally is used, most often a sample size of 400 randomly selected items to more precisely estimate the level of resources required to meet the preservation needs of the collection.

The management report generated by CALIPR on preservation needs and priorities will be applicable only to the collection from which the random sample is drawn. If, in the judgment of the surveyor, the preservation needs of the collection from which the sample is taken are representative of the preservation needs of other collections, then the surveyor can extrapolate from the needs of one collection to another, but will have no statistical basis to support the findings.

The sampling method used by CALIPR is sampling directly from the stacks. The basic procedure is to select a random sample of 100 or 400 items from the stacks or storage area by assigning a unique number to each possible location where items are stored and then selecting location numbers randomly. CALIPR has been programmed to generate lists of random locations for use when sampling from the stacks. Sampling from the stacks requires accurate information about the arrangement of the stacks. (See "3. Create a stack map of the locations where the collection is shelved")

Sampling from the stacks has advantages relative to the second most common sampling method, sampling from a shelflist or catalog of the collection. When sampling from the stacks, the survey has the possibility of capturing items in the collection that are not represented in the catalog. Since archival collections, both print and audiovisual, often are incompletely cataloged, sampling from the stacks often is the most practical and least expensive way of identifying a random sample from the collection.

However, all sampling methods have limitations. The first limitation of this technique is that sampling from the stacks reduces to zero the probability of capturing materials missing from the collection or in circulation since they are not there to be selected for the sample. This problem can result in preservation needs being underestimated if materials in circulation are most in need of preservation, but not represented in the sample. One solution to this problem is to take a separate sample of items returning from circulation to discover how these materials differ in preservation needs from the collection as a whole.

The second limitation of sampling from the stacks is the possibility of not finding an item in the randomly selected location, either because the location is empty or there proves not to be a location corresponding to the random number. For example, if a random number specifies the 7th shelf in a "bay" (shelving unit) that has only six shelves, the random number will be a "miss," requiring additional random numbers to be drawn and corresponding locations checked until enough items are found to complete the sample. See "Challenges of stack mapping".

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3. Create a stack map of the locations where the collection is shelved.

The surveyor first needs to make a detailed map of all possible shelving locations in the collections to be surveyed, and assign location numbers to the map. CALIPR permits five levels of detail in mapping. These are designated floor, range (the whole row of shelving units), bay (a unit of shelves), shelf, and item, which is the typical shelving system for most materials in libraries and archives.

A walk through the stacks to be surveyed will reveal variations in shelving that must be documented to give each item the same probability of being selected. Variations require creativity in using the random number generator to designate locations. For example, map cases may need to be considered the equivalent of a bay, with each drawer the equivalent of a shelf, and each item in the drawer the equivalent of the item on the shelf. Paper copies of the stack map will be useful to the surveyor when doing the actual survey.

Challenges of stack mapping. Since shelving arrangements vary widely, no stack map can predict all possible problems. However, one major problem often encountered is locations that have nothing shelved in them. If many empty locations are encountered, then substantially more randomly selected stack locations will have to be checked to achieve the desired sample size. (See "5. Locate items in the stacks.") To minimize empty locations, the map should be labeled to equalize the number of ranges per floor, bays per range, shelves per bay, and items per shelf. This is often accomplished by "combining" shelving units to equalize the numbers in each level of detail in the location description on the map. (See sample map.) Similar stack mapping problems involve materials with unusual shelving arrangements, such as folios that are shelved flat, maps in drawers, folders of archival materials in document storage boxes, and rolls of film in boxes.

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4. Create a list of random locations to be to be checked.

Make sure you have entered all the Stack Map data at the "Sample definition" screen; if not, click on the Update sample definition from the Action list and add any missing data. Then click on Generate random locations from the Actions list. At that page, select the number of random numbers you want to print as a start.

Two general rules of thumb: since many locations (well over half) are likely to be empty using the random location sampling method, you will need to generate more numbers than you would need if every location contained an item. Generating a list of 1,000 random numbers to start to find 400 items in fact may not be enough, so be prepared to generate additional lists of 100 or 250 items each. Second, you must use an entire list once you start down the list because the numbers, while randomly generated, have been rearranged in sequential order and consequently no longer are random!

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5. Locate items in the stacks.

The surveyor going to the stacks with the list of locations to be checked either can answer the questionnaire for each item found on the spot (using either the printout version of the questionnaire for print items http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/preservation/CALIPR/itemsurvey_print.pdf or the printout version of the questionnaire for A/V items http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/preservation/CALIPR/itemsurvey_av.pdf), or bring the items to a work station with Web access to directly key in answers to questions. The choice depends on how convenient it is to work in your stacks and whether the surveyor alone can answer all the questions. If it proves not convenient to work in the stacks or if different staff are needed to answer the several questions (e.g. the bibliographer and the collection manager), it likely will be easier to gather up the randomly selected sample items from the stacks and take them to a workstation.

The lists of random numbers are sorted into shelving location order from the lowest numbered level of the stacks to the highest, and from the lowest numbered range, bay, shelf, and item number to the highest, to reduce the distance the surveyor must travel through the stacks looking for items. Many locations likely will be empty, a very common occurrence when random sampling from the stacks. The solution to this problem is to return to the random number generator to print additional lists of random locations until you find enough items to achieve your desired size of sample. However, when printing additional lists of random locations, keep in mind that all the random numbers in any single list must be used. Stopping in the middle of a list will systematically eliminate sample items from higher numbered locations and bias the results of the survey.

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6. Set defaults on the questionnaire.

At the sample definition screen, click on Add a new item. Before entering data for each item in the sample, click on Set item defaults and key in answers you know will be the same for a number of sample items to come. Setting defaults will save you keystrokes and can be changed repeatedly throughout the process to save time when inputting answers to the questions about each item in the sample.

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7. Complete the survey questionnaire for each item in the sample.

CALIPR contains two different questionnaires, one for audio/visual materials (i.e., moving image and recorded sound materials) and another for print materials (i.e., paper-based records and photographs, i.e., all still film-based images). Two different questionnaires are needed because differences in the media lead to different preservation needs and require different preservation actions. Consequently, the two categories of records need to be surveyed separately.

Customizing statements. Some surveyors may find that the wording of some statements is not perfectly suited to their needs. For example in the Print Questionnaire, "Only copy in service area" is a statement of relative rarity appropriate to libraries responsible for service to geographic areas. Depending on the purpose of the survey, you may want to use a different statement regarding rarity, such as "Only copy in consortium" or "Only known copy", depending on the type of institution and its service policy. For the California statewide survey, "Only copy in State" is the most appropriate substitution for "Only copy in service area" because the service area is the State. Be cautious when customizing statements to retain the intent of the statement; otherwise the survey reports could give nonsensical advice on collection needs and priorities.

Deleting and updating records in the sample file. At the sample definition page, click on Edit an item if you know the item number, or go down the list and click on the blue identifier for the item itself. At the Edit item page, make any changes needed. If you want to delete the record altogether, click on Delete record.

AUDIO/VISUAL QUESTIONNAIRE

  • Call number. CALIPR assigns a sequential number to an item added to the sample, beginning with 1 for the first item added. If you want/need an item identifier other than this machine assigned sequential number for record retrieval and editing purposes, or to link the item record to the item from the collection, enter the item's call number or equivalent here. Entering the call number is optional because CALIPR does not need it to calculate preservation needs of the collection.


  • Title. Entering the title is optional and useful primarily for identification of the item corresponding to this item record.


  • Author. Entering the author (or artist or composer) is optional and useful primarily for identification of the item corresponding to this item record.


  • Publisher. Entering the publisher is optional and useful primarily for identification of the item corresponding to this item record.


  • Date. Record the year (4 digits, e.g., 1955) this item was published or, if an original recording, the year it was made. However, the goal is to approximate the date of the physical carrier, not the date of the event recorded. If you can reasonably guess an approximate date, within + or - 5 years, do it. If the date is unknown or cannot be guessed within +/- 5 years, skip the question.


  • Format. What is the item you have in hand? Pick one:
    • Audiotape - Analog (sound recordings on analog magnetic tape in all formats, e.g., 1/4 inch reel-to-reel, cartridge, and 1/8 inch cassette, mini-cassette)

    • Audiotape - Digital (sound recordings on digital magnetic tape in all formats, e.g., DAT)

    • Belt (i.e., Dictabelt)

    • Cylinder

    • Disc - Compact (include all variations of CDs: R/RW/ROM, etc.)

    • Disc - Digital Video (include all variations of DVD: R/RW/ROM)

    • Disc - Laser Videodisc

    • Disc - Transcription (also known as electrical transcriptions, ETs, or acetates)

    • Film - 35mm (35mm moving image film stock only)

    • Film - not 35mm Film (any non-35mm gauge of moving image film stock, e.g., 16mm, 8mm, Super 8mm)

    • Phonodisc - LP (vinyl "long play")

    • Phonodisc - Shellac ("78"s)

    • Videotape - Analog (analog moving image recordings on magnetic tape in all formats, e.g., 2 inch, 3/4 inch, 1/2 inch reel-to-reel, Betacam, 8mm video)

    • Videotape - Digital (digital moving image recordings on magnetic tape in all formats, e.g., MiniDV, Digital Betacam)

    • Wire

    • Other (formats that do not fall into any of the above categories)


  • Cataloged. Has the item in hand been cataloged or referenced in a finding list such that a user or staff member could find the recording in the library/archive?


  • Working equipment available to play item. Do you have equipment in working order on which this recording could be played? Answer "no" if you are unsure if the equipment works or is compatible with the format of the item in hand.


  • Staff know how to use equipment. Do you have staff with knowledge necessary to use the equipment needed to play this recording?


  • Access policy permits playing. Would your library/archive permit the user to play this recording, on site or at home, if requested? This question is about your access policy, not availability of equipment or physical condition of the item.


  • Automatic fire protection system. Does the area of the building where this item is stored have an automatic fire protection system (e.g., smoke detectors, sprinklers)?


  • Protection from water. Is the area where this item is stored adequate to protect it from storm water, flood water, and from failure of water utility pipes? For example, does the roof leak or, if storage is below grade, is there a water monitoring system to alert staff to the presence of a problem? Sprinkler system water pipes to protect the collection from fire are considered necessary calculated risks, so should not be considered a risk of water damage in answering this question.


  • Environmental conditions meet standards. Are temperature and humidity conditions in the area where this item is stored normally kept within the following parameters: temperature at the low end of comfortable working conditions or cooler, sometimes pegged at 68° F or less—but the "low end" may vary depending on variations in comfort levels in different geographical regions, so answer the question accordingly—and relative humidity in the range of 35-50% for collections with a variety of media, e.g., paper, bindings, audiovisual materials. Since the purpose of this question is to achieve an understanding of the conditions under which the items in the sample spend most of their lives, isolated instances of conditions falling outside these parameters, such as failures of equipment or unusual ambient conditions beyond the capacity of the equipment, do not constitute a failure to meet standards.


  • Shelving is adequate. This question is intended to gather information about whether there is adequate and sufficient shelving for safe long-term storage. If, for example, the item is stored on the floor because shelving is insufficient, and thus vulnerable to water damage, these "shelving" conditions would not be considered adequate long-term storage. Similarly, if the item extends beyond the edge of the shelf and is not fully supported because the shelf is too narrow, the most appropriate response would be "no" because the shelving is inadequate.


  • Item is shelved correctly. This is a shelving practices issue. If the item in hand was not shelved in observance of current best practices, the response should be "no."


  • Enclosure is adequate. Is the individual protective enclosure for this item adequate to protect it from dirt, dust, and routine handling? Original packaging and replacement packaging, if intact, are considered adequate protection for the purpose of answering this question.


  • Item appears to be deteriorated or damaged. Is there evidence of physical deterioration such that in your opinion the playability of this item is questionable? Evidence could be based on a visual inspection at the time of the survey or based on past efforts to play the recording.


  • Commercially released recording. Does the item in hand look like a product that originally was released for commercial sale? For example, a commercially printed label or protective enclosure would be evidence that the item was commercially released.


  • Archival copy. If this item likely is unique, a master recording, or a "best available" copy and consequently is regarded as an archival copy, the most appropriate response would be "yes."


  • Significant historical value. In the opinion of your institutionís collection development staff, does this item have significant historical value and importance? If staff are uncertain, answer "no."


  • Part of a comprehensive collection. Is this item part of a collection that is known for the depth of its holdings in this subject/genre/artist/format? If you are uncertain, answer "no."


  • If item were lost or rendered unusable, replace if possible. If this item were lost or rendered unusable, and if replacement were possible, would the library/archive spend its resources to replace it? If you are uncertain, answer "no." However, this question is about the value of the item in hand, not about its replaceability. So, if you know the item is unique or otherwise irreplaceable, but WOULD replace it if you could, then answer "yes" to indicate it has a relatively high value to your collection.
Three good sources of information on best practices for storage of audio/visual materials are Linda Tadic, Recommended Conservation Practices for Archival Audiovisual Materials Held in General Special Collections (http://www.imappreserve.org/educ/index.html; click on "AV Conservation"); the Electronic Arts Intermix guide to best practices (http://resourceguide.eai.org/preservation/installation/bestpractices.html#MEDIASTORAGE); and the National Film Preservation Foundation's The Film Preservation Guide: The Basics for Archives, Libraries, and Museums (http://www.filmpreservation.org/; see the chapter on storage).

PRINT QUESTIONNAIRE

  • Call number. CALIPR assigns a sequential number to an item added to the sample, beginning with 1 for the first item added. If you want/need an item identifier other than this machine assigned sequential number for record retrieval and editing purposes, or to link the item record to the item from the collection, enter the item's call number or equivalent here. Entering the call number is optional because CALIPR does not need it to calculate preservation needs of the collection.


  • Title. Entering the title is optional and useful primarily for identification of the item corresponding to this item record.


  • Author. Entering the author is optional and useful primarily for identification of the item corresponding to this item record.


  • Imprint. Entering the imprint is optional and useful primarily for identification of the item corresponding to this item record.


  • Format. What is the item you have in hand? Pick one:
    • Book. A group of pages bound together with thread or adhesive, with hard covers or paper covers, or with a mechanical binding, for example, staples, 3-ring binder, wire spiral binding, plastic post binding.

    • Document. Paper items in loose leaves not in a binding, e.g., map, letter, typescript, manuscript.

    • Photo. Photographs, film negatives, transparencies of still images, and microforms, but not including moving image films. (Moving image films are addressed by the AV collections questionnaire.

    • Other. Items that are not book, document, or photographic formats.


  • High use. If you know the item is used considerably more often than the average frequency of use for materials in your collection, answer "yes." If you are uncertain, answer "no."


  • Automatic fire protection system. Does the area of the building where this item is stored have an automatic fire protection system?


  • Environmental conditions meet standards. Are temperature and humidity conditions in the area where this item is stored normally kept within the following parameters: temperature at the low end of comfortable working conditions or cooler, sometimes pegged at 68° F or less—but the low end may vary depending on variations in comfort levels in different geographical regions, so answer the question accordingly—and relative humidity in the range of 35-50% for collections with a variety of media, e.g., paper, bindings, audiovisual materials. Since the purpose of this question is to achieve an understanding of the conditions under which the items in the sample spend most of their lives, isolated instances of conditions falling outside these parameters, such as failures of equipment or unusual ambient conditions beyond the capacity of the equipment, do not constitute a failure to meet standards.


  • Missing parts or pages. If upon casual inspection you can see that the item is missing text leaves, images, foldouts, or inserts, answer "yes."


  • Broken into pieces. If the item is broken into pieces, for example if a cover or pages are loose from a binding, answer "yes." If all parts of the item are intact, answer "no."


  • Deteriorated text/image. If the item is visibly deteriorated to the point that use would risk damage or loss of parts, answer "yes." Examples of deterioration include edges of the text paper cracking off or photographic images faded to the point that information appears to have been lost.


  • Only copy in service area. This statement asks for your estimate of the likelihood of availability of this item in other libraries and archives in your service area. Service area could be a state if you are participating in a statewide survey, or consortium if the survey is assessing priorities for preservation among the consortial members. If you are using CALIPR primarily to determine priorities within your own library or archives, then "service area" could be defined as those partners with whom you have good interlibrary borrowing arrangements. Clearly, unique items should be answered with "yes" because by definition they are the only copies.


  • Significant historical value. In the opinion of your institutionís collection development staff, does this item have significant historical value and importance? If staff are uncertain, answer "no."


  • Part of a comprehensive collection. Is this item part of a collection that is known for the depth of its holdings in this subject/genre/format? If you are uncertain, answer "no."


  • If item were lost or rendered unusable, replace if possible. If this item were lost or rendered unusable, and if replacement were possible, would the library/archive spend its resources to replace it? If you are uncertain, answer "no." However, this question is about the value of the item in hand, not about its replaceability. So, if you know the item is unique or otherwise irreplaceable, but WOULD replace it if you could, then answer "yes" to indicate it has a relatively high value to your collection.
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8. Create the management report.

After completing the survey questionnaire for every item in the sample, click on the Create report Action. CALIPR provides a management report that compiles the information gathered from the sample, estimates the scope and scale of preservation needs of the collection, recommends appropriate preservation actions, and displays actions in priority order. The management report will display as an html document. Use your internet browser's print function to print out the document. Set the print margins at 1" on your browser's print function to be sure you the text and tables format properly in the printed report.

CALIPR creates four views or perspectives, summarizing the information gathered from the whole sample or just the high use and/or high value subsets of it.
  • Whole collection
  • Materials in demand
  • High value materials
  • High value materials in demand
The high use and high value subsets of the sample provide a more focused view of a collection's most urgent and important preservation needs, thus enabling the library or archives to make best use of limited institutional resources to address the preservation needs of the collection.

Further, the management report provides data on how many items in the sample are of each format type (e.g., book, document, audiotape). These data are useful to develop a sense of how many items in each format are in the collection and how the responses to each question are distributed by format. The reason for generating the table of responses by format is to enable the preservation planner to estimate separately preservation program needs and costs for each format in the collection.

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HOW CALIPR DETERMINES PRESERVATION ACTIONS

CALIPR uses a set of broad preservation actions a library or archive would take to address preservation needs. While this set of actions is sufficiently detailed to provide a basis for administrative decision-making on preservation program development and funding, it is not intended to substitute for a conservator's detailed analysis and recommendation for treatment of individual collection items in need of preservation.

Appropriate actions are determined by the answers to statements on the questionnaire and calculated by the CALIPR software using the following rule set.

For Audio/Visual collections, the action set includes:
  • inventory control/cataloging
  • disaster response and collection salvage plan
  • staff and user education/training
  • automatic fire protection system
  • automatic water protection system
  • environmental control
  • shelving
  • replacement/reformatting
  • protective enclosure
Statement and action rules for Audio/Visual collections
  • If no on "cataloged," then "inventory control/cataloging" action.


  • If no on "working equipment," then "education/training" action.


  • If no on "staff knowhow," then "education/training" action.


  • If yes on "permits playing," then "education/training" action.


  • If no on "Does this collection have a written response and salvage plan in the event of a disaster?", then "disaster response plan" action.


  • If no on "If this is an A/V collection, does that plan include procedures specifically for salvage of A/V materials?" then "disaster response plan" action.


  • If no on "automatic fire protection," then "fire protection" action.


  • If no on "protected from water," then "water protection" action.


  • If no on "environmental conditions meet standards," then "environmental control" action.


  • If no on "shelving is adequate," then "shelving" action.


  • If no on "item is shelved correctly," then "education/training" action.


  • If no on "enclosure is adequate," then "protective enclosure" action.


  • If yes on "item appears to be deteriorated or damaged," then "replacement/reformatting" action.


  • If "35mm Film" and a date before 1950, then "replacement/reformatting" action.


  • If yes on "archival copy" and yes on "permits playing," then "replacement/reformatting" action.
Priority among the following A/V actions if they have identical values:
  1. "disaster response plan"
  2. "fire protection"
  3. "environmental control"
  4. "water protection"
For Print collections, the action set includes:
  • disaster response and collection salvage plan
  • user education
  • automatic fire protection system
  • environmental control
  • rebinding and repair
  • replacement or reformatting
  • protective enclosure
  • conservation
Statement and action rules for Print collections
  • If no on "written response and salvage plan in the event of a disaster," then "disaster response plan" action.


  • If yes on "high use," then "education" action.


  • If no on "automatic fire protection," then "fire protection" action.


  • If no on "environmental conditions meet standards," then "environmental control" action.


  • If yes on "missing parts or pages," then "replacement or reformatting" action.
Only the first action meeting all the stated conditions is permitted:
  • If yes on "deteriorated text/image" and yes on "significant historical value," then "protective enclosure" action.


  • If yes on "deteriorated text/image," then "replacement or reformatting" action.


  • If yes on "missing parts or pages" and yes on "significant historical value," then "protective enclosure" action.


  • If yes on "missing parts or pages," then "replacement or reformatting" action.


  • If yes on "broken into pieces" and yes on "significant historical value," then "conservation" action.


  • If yes on "broken into pieces" and yes on "deteriorated text/image," then "replacement or reformatting" action.


  • If yes on "broken into pieces," then "rebinding or repair" action.
Priority among the following Print actions if they have identical values:
  1. "disaster response plan"
  2. "fire protection"
  3. "environmental control"
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HOW CALIPR DETERMINES PRIORITIES AMONG PRESERVATION ACTIONS

Preservation actions are listed in priority order within each view or perspective. The priority is determined not only by the sum of the items that need a particular action, but also by the level of risk and value of the items needing a particular action. For example, a smaller number of high value items needing one action may be a higher priority than a larger number of normal value items needing another action.

Preservation priority results from data gathered by CALIPR in four categories: anticipated or demonstrated Use, Housing conditions, physical Condition, and perceived Value.

Rules for determining states of Use, Housing, Condition, and Value for A/V materials
  • If yes on "cataloged" and yes on "access policy permits playing," then potential Use is "high."


  • If no on "Does this collection have a written response and salvage plan in the event of a disaster?", or no on " If this is an A/V collection, does that plan include procedures specifically for salvage of A/V materials?", or no on "automatic fire protection system," or no on "protected from water," or no on "environmental conditions meet standards," or no on "shelving is adequate," or no on "item is correctly shelved," or no on "enclosure is adequate," then Housing is "poor."


  • If yes on "item appears to be deteriorated or damaged," then Condition is "poor."


  • If yes on "archival copy," or yes on "significant historical value," or yes on "part of a comprehensive collection," or yes on "if item were lost or rendered unusable, replace if available," then Value is "high."
Rules for determining states of Use, Housing, Condition, and Value for Print materials
  • If yes on "high use," then potential for Use is "high."


  • If no on "written response and salvage plan," or no on "automatic fire protection," or no on "stack conditions meet standards," then Housing is "poor."


  • If yes on "missing parts or pages," or yes on "broken into pieces," or yes on "deteriorated text/image," then Condition is "poor."


  • If yes on "only copy in service area," or yes on "significant historical value," or yes on "part of a comprehensive collection," or yes on "if item were lost... replace... edition," then Value is "high."
Data on these four categories are combined to create concepts of Exposure, Risk, and finally, Preservation Priority. The relationships among Use, Housing, Condition, and Value are defined as:

For each item in the sample, the combination of level (actual or anticipated) of Use and any deficiencies in Housing yields the level of Exposure. In turn, the level of Exposure, coupled with the item's physical Condition yields its Risk of damage or loss. Finally, Risk coupled with the item's Value yields its overall Preservation Priority. Expressed as decision matrices, the relationships look like the following.

Exposure

The level of Exposure (high, medium, and low) is determined by the severity of the combination of Housing problems and level of Use. At the extremes, materials that are housed well and are seldom used have a relatively low Exposure, whereas materials housed poorly and used frequently have a relatively high Exposure.

This matrix shows how the combined values for Access and Housing yield a value for Exposure:

Risk

Risk is defined as the vulnerability of materials to damage or loss. Materials at high Exposure and in poor Condition are most at Risk; materials with low Exposure and in good Condition are, in relative terms, at no Risk. Another matrix is used to combine the values:

Preservation Priority

Having defined Risk as high, medium, low, or none, Preservation Priority can be determined by using a third matrix, relating Risk to Value:

Items for which there is no risk as defined by the Risk matrix will not have a preservation priority, since no preservation action is needed at this time.

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READINGS

Banks, Paul N. and Roberta Pilette. Preservation Issues and Planning. Chicago: American Library Association, 2000.

Eden, Paul, Naomi Dungworth, Nancy Bell and Graham Matthews. A Model For Assessing Preservation Needs in Libraries. British Library Research and Innovation Centre, 1998. (British Library Research and Innovation Report 125)

Electronic Arts Intermix guide to best practices (http://resourceguide.eai.org/preservation/installation/bestpractices.html#MEDIASTORAGE )

National Film Preservation Foundation. The Film Preservation Guide: The Basics for Archives, Libraries, and Museums (http://www.filmpreservation.org/; see the chapter on storage)

Patkus, Beth. Assessing Preservation Needs, a Self-Survey Guide. Andover, Massachusetts: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2003.

Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn. Preserving Archives and Manuscripts. SAA Basic Manual Series. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1993. 225 p. Available from Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chicago, IL 60605 (312-922-0140). URL:http://www.archivists.org/catalog/index.asp

Tadic, Linda. Recommended Conservation Practices for Archival Audiovisual Materials Held in General Special Collections (http://www.imappreserve.org/educ/index.html; click on "AV Conservation")

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ABOUT CALIPR

CALIPR: an automated preservation needs assessment instrument created for California libraries and archives (http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/preservation/CALIPR/) has been adapted from CALIPR, An automated tool to assess preservation needs of book and document collections for institutional or statewide planning. Sacramento, California State Library, September, 1991, and expanded to apply to audio/visual collections in addition to paper-based collections.

Web version 1.0; February 2007.

Development by Barclay Ogden, Head, Preservation Department, UC Berkeley Library (bogden@library.berkeley.edu). Programming by Alvin Pollock and web design by Brooke Dykman of the Digital Publishing Group, Library Systems Office, UC Berkeley.

(c) The California State Library. All rights reserved. The California State Library. Sacramento, CA 94237-0001


Copyright © 2007 California State Library. All rights reserved.
Document maintained at http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/preservation/CALIPR/ by CALIPR staff.
Last update September 18, 2013. Server Manager: Contact.