DEV STD 100: History of Development and Underdevelopment

Contact

  • James Church
  • Office Hours: By appointment
  • Office Location: 438 Doe Library
  • Contact Info:

    510 678-7611

About this Guide

This is a guide for locating information at the UC Berkeley Libraries: books, journal articles, primary sources, web content, and statistics for Development Studies 100: The History of Development and Underdevelopment.

Catalogs & Search Engines

Find a book that matches your topic and go to the call number range to browse. Check the references and bibliography.

Google Scholar
. Functions as both a key word database for articles and books. It automatically connects to select licensed content held by the UC libraries. 

Google Books. Millions of scanned books worldwide.  Search the text of the books, view previews or "snippets" from books still in copyright, and read the full text of out-of-copyright books.  To read the text of a copyrighted book, use the Find in a Library link to locate the book at UC Berkeley or search OskiCat.

Oskicat. UC Berkeley libraries catalog. Includes records for most UCB library materials, including books, e-books, journal and e-journal titles, films and videos, maps, archival materials, and much more. See also the Quick Guide to Oskicat and Oskicat Tutorial.

Melvyl
. Catalog for all UC Campus libraries, including selected libraries on campus not in Oskicat, e.g. the Boalt Law Library. 

Campus Library Map

Click on the image below to see a larger interactive version of the campus library map.

UC Berkeley Library campus map

You can also view/download a PDF map of library locations. For library contact information and building addresses, visit our directory.

Electronic Resource Finder

The most important research section of the library web site is the Library Electronic Resource Finder. This is the library directory of databases and other information resources, organized by subject (e.g. political science) type (e.g. encyclopedias) as well as other categories. It also contains a link to a comprehensive listing of library e-journals.

Background Country Information

Unless you are familiar with the historical information of a region it is a good idea to get background information on your topic.   Here are some sample sources.  Many more are available in the Doe Library reference section. Go to Oskicat, do a search by country or continent and select "Doe Reference" as the location from the pull-down menu.

Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Country Reports and Profiles. Indexes studies that provide analysis and forecasts of the political, economic, and business environments in more than 180 countries. Annual profiles are updated by quarterly reports.

Europa World. Excellent source for concise economic, social and political background information on individual countries. 

Human Development Report Library. The web site includes the UNDP flagship publication the Human Development Report, as well as national human development reports from over 250 countries and regions

Library of Congress Country Studies. Description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world.

Routledge Politics and International Relations Online. Extensive ollection of reference books and encyclopedias from Routledge. Coverage includes globalization, international security, political thought, peace and conflict, political chronologies and more.

Connecting from Off Campus

You can access UCB Library resources from off campus or via your laptop or other mobile device using one of two simple methods:

Proxy Server
After you make a one-time change in your web browser settings, the proxy server will ask you to log in with a CalNet ID or Library PIN when you click on the link to a licensed resource. See the setup instructions, FAQ, and Troubleshooting pages to configure your browser.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
After you install and run the VPN "client" software on your computer, you can log in with a CalNet ID to establish a secure connection with the campus network.

Citation Management Tools

Citation management tools help you manage your research, collect and cite sources, and create bibliographies in a variety of citation styles.  Each one has its strengths and weaknesses, but any are easier than doing it by hand!

  1. Zotero: A free plug-in that works exclusively with the Firefox browser: keeps copies of what you find on the web, permits tagging, notation, full text searching of your library of resources, works with Word, and has a free web backup service.
  2. RefWorks - free for UC Berkeley users. It allows you to create your own database by importing references and using them for footnotes and bibliographies. Use the RefWorks New User Form to sign up.
  3. EndNote: may be purchased from UC Berkeley's Software Central.

It's always good to double check the formatting -- sometimes the software doesn't get it quite right.

History Databases

The following databases are useful for finding academic articles in history journals. See also ths section below on selected primary resource databases useful for uncovering original (primary sources) such as newspapers and government information dealing with empire and the legacy of colonialism.   

America: History and Life. Indexes over 2,000 journals published worldwide on the history of the US and Canada from prehistory to the present. Includes all key English-language historical journals; selected historical journals from major countries, state, and local history journals; and a targeted selection of hundreds of journals in the social sciences and humanities.

Bibliography of British and Irish History. Covers historical writing dealing with the British Isles, and with the British Empire and Commonwealth, during all periods for which written documentation is available. To access database, click on Enter databases, then click on Bibliography of British and Irish History

Bibliography of Slavery and World Slavery. Searchable database of references to scholarly works in all disciplines and western European languages on slavery and slaving throughout the world. It includes most known print and digital materials published since 1900 covering historical and modern times.

Historical Abstracts. Indexes over 2,000 journals, as well as historical book reviews and dissertations, published worldwide about all aspects of world history (excluding US and Canada) from 1450 to the present. Articles covered were written from 1954 to the present

JSTOR. Includes over 1000 scholarly journals with access to more than 2 million articles. JSTOR is an archive which means that current issues (generally the most recent 3-5 years) of the journals are not yet available.

Periodicals Archive Online (formerly PCI Full Text)An online periodical archive that provides access to some 475 digitized journals in the humanities and social sciences. A sister database, Periodicals Index Online, provides additional indexing for articles in over 4,700 periodicals.

Project MUSE.Topics include literature and criticism, history, the visual and performing arts, cultural studies, education, political science, gender studies, economics and many others.

Primary Sources

The Bancroft Library. One of the most outstanding special collections in the country. Includes the Bancroft Collection of Western Americana and Latin Americana, the University Archives, the Mark Twain Papers, and the Regional Oral History Office. See the for a selection of finding aids.Online Archive of California

C19: The Nineteenth Century Index. Comprehensive coverage of nineteenth-century books, periodicals, official documents, newspapers and archives with bibliographic coverage of over 1.4 million books and official publications, 64,891 archival collections and 15.6 million articles published in over 2,500 journals, magazines and newspapers.

Confidential Print: Africa, 1834-1966. Documents in this resource cover the whole of the modern period of European colonization of the continent: from single-page letters or telegrams to comprehensive dispatches, investigative reports and texts of treaties. All items marked "Confidential Print" were circulated to leading officials in the Foreign Office, to the Cabinet, and to heads of British missions abroad.

Economist Historical Archive. Includes the complete searchable copy of more than 8000 issues of The Economist since it was first published in 1843 through 2007. Also includes supplements, special Issues and surveys.

Empire Online. Includes 70,000 images of original manuscript and printed documents to support study and research in the field of colonial and empire studies. In addition to original documents, this database contains scholarly essays and analysis.

Foreign Office Files for China, 1949-1980. The complete British Foreign Office Files dealing with China, Hong Kong and Taiwan in this period from 1949 (when the Chinese Communist Party won power) to 1976 (the year of Mao Zedong's death). These resources are from the National Archives, Kew, the UK government's official archive.

Historical Newspapers Online Indexes newspapers covering all aspects of British life and world affairs in the 19th and 20th centuries. Contains four major historical resources: Palmer's Index to the Times which covers The Times (London, 1790-1905); The Official Index to the Times (1906-1980); The Historical Index to the New York Times (1863- 1922); and Palmer's Full Text Online (1785-1870).

House of Commons Parliamentary Papers. Provides full-text access to thousands of 18th, 19th and 20th Century Parliamentary Papers. Includes all the "sessional papers" of the British Parliament: bills, reports of committees, papers presented by Royal Commissions and government departments, treaties and international agreements, command papers, and statistics.

Nineteenth Century Collections Online (NCCO). Primary source material from the nineteenth century and beyond. Particularly strong in British politics and society, European literature from 1790-1840 (via the Corvey collection), Asia and the West, and British popular culture

Times Digital Archive. Online access, fully searchable full text of over 200 years (1785 to 1985, with 1986 to 2003 added later this year) of The London Times, the "world's newspaper of record." 

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (Voyages). Primary resource documenting the African slave trade. Includes detailed information concerning over 35,000 voyages from 1514 to 1866 with names, statistics, images and other information.

International & Country Databases

Below are some selected databases with either a regional, country specific, or international scope, as well as those strong in the field of development studies. See also the sections on  publishers in the field of poverty as well as highly cited journals in poverty and development studies.

Proquest Social Sciences. An interdisciplinary metasearch through 22 of the the social sciences indexes on the ProQuest platform. Includes EconLit, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts, PAIS, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts and more.

ABSEES Online Database. Indexes journal articles, books, dissertations, selected government publications, and online resources published in the US and Canada on East and Central Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet Union.

Africa-Wide NiPAD. A comprehensive database covering journals, magazines, newspapers, broadcasts, books and more on all aspects of Africa including politics, history, economics, literature, music and natural sciences. Combines the databases previously known as African Studies and South African Studies.

Anthropology Plus. Indexes journal articles, essays, reports, commentaries, edited works, and obituaries in the fields of social, cultural, physical, biological, and linguistic anthropology as well as ethnology, archaeology, folklore, and material culture. This database combines the resources of Anthropological Index and Anthropological Literature.

Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS). Over 500,000 citations to journal articles, books, and conference proceedings worldwide on the countries, histories, and cultures of East, South, and Southeast Asia.

Elsevier Geography.  Indexes over 2000 journals, monographs, books, conference proceedings, and theses covering the international literature in human geography, as well as international development issues.

Handbook of Latin American Studies. Indexes books, journals and proceedings to create an annual bibliography on Latin America consisting of works selected and annotated by scholars, alternating between focusing on the humanities and the social sciences.

Index Islamicus. Indexes literature on Islam, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Over 3,000 journals are monitored for inclusion in the database, together with conference proceedings, monographs, multi-authored works and book reviews. Journals and books are indexed down to the article and chapter level.

International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). Indexes over 3000 journals, books, chapters, and book reviews in the fields of economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology from more than 100 countries. More than 70 languages are represented, with 30% percent of records published in languages other than English.

JSTOR. Includes over 1000 scholarly journals with access to more than 2 million articles. JSTOR is an archive which means that current issues (generally the most recent 3-5 years) of the journals are not yet available.

PolicyFile. Index to public policy in the areas of economics, politics, the environment, and social issues, taken from reports from a wide range of think tanks, Non-governmental organizations, international governmental organizations, and other institutions worldwide.

Sociological Abstracts. Indexes over 1,900 journals, books, dissertations, and reviews in the social sciences on sociological topics as well as selected anthropology, criminology, demography, law, social psychology, and urban development.

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Development Studies Journals

The following is a selection of highly cited journals in development studies.  If looking for articles to support your research try doing a combined keyword and journal title(s) search in one of the databases listed above. The following entries link directly to the ejournal if all the content is online, and to the Oskicat record if some issues are print only or supplied on multiple platforms.

World Development. Examines solutions to poverty, unemployment, malnutrition, disease, lack of shelter, environmental degradation, debt, gender, ethnic discrimination, civil conflict, and lack of participation in economic and political life.

Journal of Development Studies.  Oldest journal in the field of development studies, publishing interdisciplinary articles on development relating economics, politics, public policy, and practice. 

Oxford Development Studies.  Provides a forum for critical analysis of conventional theories and policy issues in all aspects of development, includuing economics, history, politics, anthropology, and sociology.

Development Policy Review. Covers poverty-reduction strategies, inequality and social exclusion, property rights, sustainable livelihoods, globalisation in trade and finance, and the reform of global governance. Edited by the Overseas Development Institute.

Studies in Comparative International Development.  Addresses political, social, economic, and environmental change, including political institutions, economic growth and income distribution, and the transformation of social structure and culture.

Development and Change.  Interdisciplinary journal known for publishing unconventional analyses in the field of development studies and social change, covering a range of topics from all persuasions concerned with development.

Journal of International Development.  Research on development issues in economics, politics, international relations, sociology, anthropology, and development studies, focusing on transitional and underdeveloped areas.

Information Technology for Development. Research on the effects of Information Technology on economic, social and human development, in public administration, economics, and international development. Published in association with UNESCO.

Development.   "Provides dialogue between activists and intellectuals committed to the search for alternative paths of social transformation towards a more sustainable and just world."  From the Society for International Development.

Third World Quarterly. Examines emergng issues affecting the developing world beyond strict “development studies,” providing analysis of grassroot efforts of development practitioners and planners across Africa, Asia, Latin American and the Middle East.

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Development Publishers

The following publishers either specialize in or publish frequently in the areas of development and humanitarian relief.  Try looking up the publisher as a keyword in Oskicat or browsing publications on their web sites.    

Earthscan. Publisher of books on environmental and sustainable development topics and issues.

Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
. Think tank based in the UK working on research, teaching and communications on international development, globalisation, participation, power, and social change.

Kumarian Press. Publishes books on international development, globalization, peace and conflict resolution, human rights, the environment, women and gender, NGOs and civil society, microfinance, health, and the interaction between the richer and poorer societies.

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).  Non-profit organization promoting sustainable patterns of world development through collaborative research, policy studies, networking and knowledge dissemination.

Overseas Development Institute
. Think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, informing policy and practice leading to poverty reduction, the alleviation of suffering and the achievement of sustainable livelihoods in developing countries.

Practical Action Publishing. Development charity in the UK working with poor communities on  renewable energy, food production, agro-processing, sustainable transport, water, sanitation, small enterprise development, building and shelter, and disaster risk reduction.

Oxfam (UK
).  International confederation of organisations working in countries worldwide to find lasting solutions to poverty and realted injustice around the world

Polity Press.  Publishes books on globalization, politics, refugee studies and international relations.

Routledge
.  Publishes on a wide range of subjects, including many on development studies, area studies, urban studies, politics and international relations, and social work.

Zed Books. Publishes on politics, development, gender, the environment and economics, specializing in international and developing country issues.

International Development & Relief Organizations

To get started finding International Governmental Organization (IGO) Information you may wish to try the following IGO Custom Search Engine, which was initiated by David Oldenkamp, International Documents Librarian at Indiana University, and searches 392 urls of International Governmental Organizations (IGOs).

Global Issues on the UN Agenda. UN Reference tool for links to online documents, agencies, and other resources on a wide range of important topics on the UN Agenda.

European Union Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO). Humanitarian aid office of the European Union. Site includes lists of publications and decisions.

Human Development Report Library
. The web site includes the UNDP flagship publication the Human Development Report, as well as national human development reports from over 250 countries and regions.

Relief Web. Web portal from the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Hails itself as "the world's leading gateway to information on humanitarian emergencies and disasters."

Rural Poverty Portal
.  Portal from the International Fund for Agricultural development on a wide range of poverty issues, country reports and development strategies, from international agencies world wide, including development banks and other international organizations.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
. United Nations children's agency.  Provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries

United Nations Office for Project Services.  Works to implementing projects for the United Nations System, international financial institutions, governments and other partners in the aid world.

UN Habitat
. United Nations agency for human settlements mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
. The United Nations Refugee Agency. Includes many online books, papers and statistics.

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NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs)

The amount of information on Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on the Internet is large so locating NGO information by subject or geography can be difficult. The following links and  the NGO search engine below may help. 

NGO Custom Search Engine

This search engine was developed by David Oldenkamp at Indiana University and James Jacobs at Stanford. The site seaches NGOs with Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and other NGO directories on the Internet.

Directory of Development Organizations. Over 47,000 organizations of all kinds listed by region and country. One of the most extensive compilation of NGO country directories.

Idealist.Org. Includes a searchable directory of over 52,000 organizations by name, mission, country of focus, and more.

Non-Governmental Organizations Research Guide (Duke University). Guide enabling users to browse NGOs by issue, region, and affiliation.

TakingITGlobal
. International non-profit organization centered on young people interested in connecting across cultures. Outstanding source of NGO information by country and area of focus. Go to browse organizations.

International & Regional Financial Institutions

To find reviews and other reports documenting flows of foreign assistance from countries with significant foreign assistance plans, do a subject search in Oskicat or Melvyl, e.g:

economic assistance, british
economic assistance, canadian africa
economic assistance, japanese developing countries
economic assistance, american asia

Asian Development Bank. Information on loans, investment, and technical assistance for a broad range of Asian development projects.

African Development Bank
. Regional development Bank for Africa.  See also their flagship publication African Development Review.

Caribbean Development Bank
. Regional financial and economic development institution for the Caribbean.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
. Development bank to provide project financing for Easterm Europe and Central Asia.

InterAmerican Development Bank
. Regional development bank focusing on economic development and technical cooperation projects for Latin America. See also IDB America. 

International Monetary Fund

Islamic Development Bank. Largest multilateral development institution in the Middle East, located in Saudi Arabia.

OECD iLibrary
. Online library from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) an international economic organisation and leading international organization for foreign aid (development assistance) data.  For a quick summary of OECD statistics see the OECD Factbook.

World Bank 

Development Statistics

Africa Development Indicators.  Detailed collection of data on Africa, containing over 1,600 indicators, covering 53 African countries from 1961 to 2008. Data include social, economic, financial, natural resources, infrastructure, governance, partnership, and environmental indicators.

AIDSInfo Online. From the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS. Includes data and estimates on AIDS and HIV infections worldwide, and other associated variables, from the 1990's.

China Data Online. Focuses on economic statistics of China, arranged by regions and categories. Includes monthly and yearly reports on China's macroeconomic development and statistical databases about China's population and economy at the county and city levels.

FAOSTAT. Extensive data on agriculture, food supply, food security, prices, commodities, forest products, and fisheries from the FAO.

Genderstats. Indicators on key gender topics. Themes included are demographics, education, health, labor force, and political participation. From the World Bank.

Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Statistical and epidemiological data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Statistics by disease and condiation (HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, epidemics) as well as information on health systems, nutrition. injuries and violence, environmental health, tobacco and more. 

Human Development Report Statistics. Statistics from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Links to the text of national human development reports from over 250 countries and regions.

Indiastat.  Statistical data from Indian government and private sources: finance, agriculture, health, housing, transportation, and many other areas. Data is derived from documents, reports and policies from the states and national government of India. Information is classified into 30 major sections and includes census data. Userid and password required. Please inquire at any Library Reference Desk for assistance.

Laborsta. International labor statistics from 1979 to the present on employment, earnings, wages, strikes and more. 

Lexis Nexis Statistical DataSets. Provides fast and easy one-stop shopping to more than 5.3 billion (and growing) data points from licensed and public domain datasets. Sources of data include local, state and international governments and organizations.

Official Statistics on the Web. Access to social, economic and general data from official government sources.  Includes statistical offices, central banks and government agencies. Features a good subject list.

OECD iLibrary. Leading International Organization for foreign aid data. Includes International Development Statistics as well as statistical databases on financial aid to developing countries. Choose the "international development" link on the statistics section.

UNCTADStat. From the United Nations Conference on Trade & Development. See also the World Investment Directory, which offers FDI data by country.

UN Data. Wide range of economic, social, cultural, and demographic indicators: population, environment, health, economics, technology, trade, refugees, and more.

Urbaninfo. Statistical data on urban indicators, human settlements, and city profiles worldwide from the United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Database is difficult to use, not all indicators listed are available for every geography, 

U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants (Green Book). Loans and grants from the US government each fiscal year by purpose and country.

World Development Indicators. Time series data from 1960 for 207 countries in the areas of population, labour, education, economics, the environment and much more.

World Income Inequality Database. Information for over 140 countries on income inequalities at both cross-country and time series levels over the period 1950-98, with a focus on the period since 1980. See also the University of Texas Income Inequality Project.

Activist Books

The following is a select bibliography of books that address international financial institutions (IFIs) and development aid. The UC Berkeley libraries have many similar titles. Use the Oskicat or Melvyl catalogs to do subject searches on topics like "globalization economic aspects," or by the name of the institution.

Adams, Patricia. Odious Debts: Loose Lending, Corruption and the Third World's Environmental Legacy. London, Earthscan, 1991.

Cavanagh, John, and Mander, Jerry (eds.). Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible. San Francisco, CA : Berrett-Koehler, 2004.

Ariel Buira (ed.). Challenges to the World Bank and IMF: Developing Country Perspectives. London: Anthem Press, 2003.

Bateman, Milford (ed). Confronting microfinance : undermining sustainable development. Sterling, VA : Kumarian Press, 2011.

Carroll, Toby. Delusions of development: the World Bank and the post-Washington consensus in Southeast Asia.  New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Cavanaugh, John, Daphne Wysham and Marcos Arruda (eds).  Beyond Bretton Woods: Alternatives to the Global Economic Order. London: Pluto Press, 1994.

Danaher, Kevin (ed.). Fifty Years Is Enough: The Case Against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Boston: South End Press, 1994.

Danaher, Kevin. 10 reasons to abolish the IMF & World Bank, foreword by Anuradha Mittal.  New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004.

Darrow, Mac. Between Light and Shadow: The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and International Human Rights Law. Portland, Ore., Hart Publishing, 2003.

Drake, Deborah and Rhyne, Elisabeth (eds).  The commercialization of microfinance : balancing business and development. Bloomfield, CT : Kumarian Press, 2002.

Gould, Erica R. Money talks: the International Monetary Fund, conditionality, and supplementary financiers.  Stanford, Calif. :  Stanford University Press, 2006.

Hancock, Graham.  Lords of poverty: the free-wheeling lifestyles, power, prestige and corruption of the multi-billion dollar aid business. London : Macmillan London, 1989.

Karim, Labia.  Microfinance and its discontents : women in debt in Bangladesh. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 2011.

Karunaratne, Garvin. How the IMF ruined Sri Lanka & alternative programmes of success. Colombo : Godage International Publishers, 2006.

Peet, Richard.  Unholy trinity: the IMF, World Bank and WTO. 2nd ed.  London.  New York : Zed Books , 2009.

Pincus, Jonathon and Winters, Jeffrey A. Reinventing the World Bank. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Rowden, Rick. The deadly ideas of neoliberalism: how the IMF has undermined public health and the fight against AIDS.  London ; New York : Zed Books, 2009.

Sinclair, Hugh.  Confessions of a microfinance heretic : how microlending lost its way and betrayed the poor. San Francisco : Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2012.

Stiglitz, Joseph. Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.

Toussaint, Eric. Bank of the south: an alternate to IMF-World Bank. Mumbai : Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, 2007.

Vines, David and Christopher Gilbert. The IMF and its Critics: Reform of the Global Financial Architecture. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Weaver, Catherine. Hypocrisy trap: the World Bank and the poverty of reform. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.

Activist Organizations

The following selection of activist groups seek to reform and/or critique international financial and development institutions. While such groups provide an interesting and passionate viewpoint not all are not strictly academic so please check with your GSI before using web sites your research. Please also see also the select bibliography of books on international institutions and development aid. 

ActionAid USA. Advocates reforms in the areas of poverty reduction, trade, education, agriculture, and expenditure of IMF and World Bank funds.

Afrodad. Civil society organisation working to secure solutions to Africa's debt problems and development processes.

AfricaAction. Oldest organization in the U.S. working on African affairs. Includes position papers on the World Bank & IMF as well as the UN involvement in Darfur.

Alliance for a Corporate Free UN
. International coalition exposing the human rights and environmental records of companies partnering with the UN. Part of Corpwatch, which opposes the UN Global Compact in which the UN has partnered with businesses to support environmental and social principles.

Bank Information Center
. Partners with civil society to influence the World Bank and other international financial institutions (IFIs) to promote social and economic justice and ecological sustainability.

Bretton Woods Project
. Works to scrutinise and influence the World Bank and IMF. Through briefings, reports and a bimonthly digest it monitors the projects, policy reforms and the overall management of the Bretton Woods institutions, with special emphasis on environmental and social concerns.

Development Today
.
Independent journal on aid, specialising on political, business and environmental issues related to Nordic and multilateral development assistance.

Focus on the Global South
. Combines policy research, advocacy, and grassroots capacity building to generate critical analysis and encourage debates on national and international policies and to "dismantle oppressive economic and political structures and institutions."

GenderAction
. Organization dedicated to promoting gender equality and women’s rights in International Financial Institution (IFIs), e.g. the World Bank.

Halifax Iniative
. Goal to fundamentally transform the international financial system and its institutions, namely the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and export credit agencies.

International Accountability Project
. Public interest organization offering legal support to people seeking to hold international financial institutions (IFIs) accountable for violations of environmental and human rights law.

International Forum on Globalization
. Alliance of activists, scholars, economists, researchers and writers formed to stimulate new thinking, activity, and public education in response to economic globalization.

New Rules for Global Finance
. Coalition of development, human rights, labor, environmental, and religious organizations and scholars dedicated to the reform of the global financial architecture.

One Campaign
. International non-profit organization which aims to increase government funding for and effectiveness of international aid programs

Probe International
. Canadian based group exposes the environmental, social, and economic effects of Canada's aid and trade abroad.

South Asian Network on Dams, Rivers and People
. Civil-society network designed to bring together organizations of civil society, governments, and the World Bank in a review of structural adjustment programs (SAPs).

Structural Adjustment Participatory Review Information Networ (SAPRIN)
. Civil society group working with the World Bank to review structural adjustment programs.

Third World Network. Non-profit international network of organizations involved in issues relating to development, the Third World and North-South issues.

World Development Movement. UK based NGO focusing on world poverty and a wide range of development topics - climate change, debt relief, World Bank & IMF reform, etc.

World Social Forum. "Open meeting place" created to discuss strategies of resistance to the model for globalisation formulated by large multinational corporations, national governments, IMF, the World Bank and the WTO

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