Movie Censorship in the US and UK:
A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library












Banned & Censored Films (videography and bibliography)
Bibliography on the Hollywood Blacklist

Alder, J. E.
"Film censorship---something for everyone." The Modern Law Review v. 40 (January 1977) p. 74-9

Aldgate, Anthony.
Censorship in theatre and cinema Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2005.
MAIN: PN2044.G6 .A43 2005

Aldgate, Anthony.
Censorship and the permissive society : British cinema and theatre, 1955-1965 Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1995.
MAIN: PN1995.65.G7 A43 1995

Asimow, Michael.
"Divorce in the Movies: From the Hays Code to Kramer vs. Kramer." Legal Studies Forum, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2000
"Movies often provide a window through which we can observe human behavior and legal institutions as they existed when the film was made. However, this is not true of the subjects of marital disintegration and divorce. Hollywood's rigid system of self-censorship, embodied in the Hays Code and the Production Code Administration, nearly blotted divorce themes right off the screen. What little was said of the subject during the middle third of the twentieth century was wildly wrong. The Code was written by and administered by staunch Catholics, largely to stave off boycott threats by the Catholic Legion of Decency. As a result, it reflected Catholic moral teachings, particularly the prohibition of divorce."

Athanasourelis, John Paul.
"Film Adaptation and the Censors: 1940s Hollywood and Raymond Chandler." Studies in the Novel. 35 (3): 325-38. 2003 Fall.
UC users only

Ayer, D.; Bates, R. E.; Herman, P. J.
"Self-censorship in the movie industry: an historical perspective on law and social change." Wisconsin Law Review v. 1970 (1970) p. 791
UC users only

Backstory 4 : interviews with screenwriters of the 1970s and 1980s
Edited and with an introduction by Patrick McGilligan. Berkeley : University of California Press, c2006.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1998.2 .B345 2006

Barker, Martin.
"The Challenge of Censorship "Figuring" out the Audience." Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film & Television, Spring2009, Issue 63, p58-60, 3p
UC users only

Barbas, Samantha
"The Political Spectator: Censorship, Protest and the Moviegoing Experience, 1912-1922." Film History, Vol. 11, No. 2,
UC users only

Barker, Martin
The Challenge of Censorship "Figuring" out the Audience." Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film & Television; Spring2009, Issue 63, p58-60, 3p
UC users only
The article examines issues regarding the censorship of motion pictures. Focusing on the attitudes and perceptions of audience members the author attempts to discover the cultural awareness and significance contained in a motion pictures and to assemble a research method that can measure audience reaction to films. Questions to be settled include audience reaction to the depiction of sexual violence, the justification of such images by referencing "context," and audience response to motion pictures that have been subject to censorship.

Bernstein, Matthew
"A Tale of Three Cities: The Banning of "Scarlet Street"." Cinema Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1. (Autumn, 1995), pp. 27-52.
UC users only
The disputes between Universal Pictures and censors in New York state, Milwaukee, and Atlanta over the banning of "Scarlet Street" (1945) are symptomatic of Hollywood's uncertain status in post--World War II America.

Bhaumika, Somes'vara.
Cinema and censorship : the politics of control in India / Someswar Bhowmik. New Delhi : Orient BlackSwan, 2009.
NRLF (UCB) PN1995.65I4 B48 2009

Biesen, Sheri Chinen
"Censorship, 'Red Meat' and The Postman Always Rings Twice." In: Blackout : World War II and the origins of film noir Published: Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
MAIN: PN1995.9.F54 B53 2005; View current status of this item
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip056/2005001866.html

Biesen, Sheri Chinen
"Raising Cain with the Censors, Again: The Postman Always Rings Twice(1946)." Literature-Film-Quarterly, 2000, 28:1, 41-48.
UCB users only
The author examines censorship in Hollywood and the development of Film noir. Topics include motion picture industry, film marketing, and culture changes.

Binggeli, Elizabeth
"Worse than Bad: Sanctuary, the Hays Office and the Genre of Abjection." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 87-116, Autumn 2009
UCB users only

Black, Gregory D.
The Catholic crusade against the movies, 1940-1975 Published: Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1998, c1997.
MAIN: PN1995.5 .B48 1998
Contents via Google books

Black, Gregory D.
"Censorship: An Historical Interpretation." Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism Vol. VI, No. 1: Fall 1991

Black, Gregory D.
Hollywood censored : morality codes, Catholics, and the movies Cambridge [England] ; New York, NY, USA : Cambridge University Press, 1994.
MAIN: PN1995.5 .B49 1994
Contents via Google Books
"In response to a series of sex scandals that rocked the movie industry in the early 1920s, the Production Code Administration and the Catholic Legion of Decency implemented a code stipulating that movies stress proper behavior, respect for government, and "Christian values." Based on an extensive survey of original studio records, censorship files, and the Catholic Legion of Decency archives (whose contents are published here for the first time), Hollywood Censored examines how hundreds of films were expurgated to promote a conservative political agenda during the 1930s. By taking an innovative view of how movies were made, and the conditions that made them, Hollywood Censored brings together such chapters as "Movies and Modern Literature," "Beer, Blood and Politics," and "Film Politics and Industry Policy" to form a rare look at America's most famous industry." [From Google books]

Black, Gregory D.
"Hollywood censored : The Production Code Administration and the Hollywood Film Industry, 1930-1940." Film History, 3:3 (1989) p.167
UC users only

Black, Gregory D.
"Hollywood censored : The Production Code Administration and the Hollywood Film Industry, 1930-1940." In: Movies and American society / edited by Steven J. Ross. Oxford ; Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2002.
MAIN: PN1993.5.U65 S52 1996
PFA : PN1993.5.U65 S52 1996

Bok, Sissela
"Violent entertainment and censorship." In: Violence in film and television / James D. Torr, book editor. San Diego, CA : Greenhaven Press, c2002.
Main Stack PN1995.9.V5.V565 2002

Bouras, James

"In the realm of the censors." Film Comment v. 13 (January 1977) p. 32-3

Brasell, R. Bruce.
"'A dangerous experiment to try': film censorship during the twentieth century in Mobile, Alabama." Film History, 2003, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p81-102, 22p
UC users only

Brisbin, Richard A. Jr.
"Censorship, Ratings, and Rights: Political Order and Sexual Portrayals in American Movies." Studies in American Political Development (2002), 16: 1-27
UC users only
Between 1966 and 1971, a remarkable change occurred in the regulation of the sexual content of American movies. A policy of government and industry cooperation in the censorship of sexual portrayals and messages in American general release movies disappeared. Indeed, the collapse of movie censorship appeared quite abrupt. In 1966 state, local, and industry censors nearly kept actor Elizabeth Taylor, in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, from turning into the camera and uttering ?You son of a bitch.? By 1971, A Clockwork Orange would contain a scene of rape, frontal nudity, and an accelerated sequence depicting a m?nage-?-trois. Such a change signals a synoptic shift in the morality policy governing an industry with significant influence on public tastes.

Burns, James McDonald.
Flickering shadows : cinema and identity in colonial Zimbabwe / J.M. Burns ; foreword by Peter Davis. Athens : Ohio University Press, c2002.
Main Stack PN1993.5.Z55.B87 2002
Contents: Cinema and censorship in Southern Rhodesia, 1914-1940 -- Watching Africans watch films: theorizing film literacy in British Africa -- The central African film unit: films for Africans, 1948-1963 -- Monitoring African film audiences in the Central African Federation, 1948-1963 -- Postwar censorship in the Rhodesian Federation, 1948-1963 -- The Rhodesian front era, 1962-1980.

Butters, Gerald R.
Banned in Kansas : motion picture censorship, 1915-1966 / Gerald R. Butters, Jr. Columbia : University of Missouri Press, c2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.63.K36 B87 2007

Cadegan, Una M.
"Guardians of Democracy or Cultural Storm Troopers? American Catholics and the Control Of Popular Media, 1934-1966." Catholic Historical Review 2001 87(2): 252-282.
UC users only

Calkins, M. L.
"Censorship in Chinese cinema." Comm/Ent: Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 239-338, Winter 1999
"With any film or play produced in China receiving close government scrutiny at each step of production, this article examines censorship in Chinese cinema in an attempt to make sense of a tradition of sometimes seemingly arbitrary decisions by the authorities. Film, as a particularly visible and communicative media, is particularly subject to governmental interference, and the Chinese government has exploited that vulnerability to the fullest. This article attempts to demonstrate that China takes a similar approach to film censorship as it does to contracts, in the sense that censorship involves continual negotiations rather than binding agreement and in the sense that articulated standards are subject to overriding cultural norms and external factors. This article concludes that film censorship in China, like contracts and constitutional law in that country, is contextual, individualized, and continuously negotiable rather than absolute or binding." [Communication Abstracts]

Carmen, Ira H.
Movies, censorship, and the law Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press [1966]
MAIN: PN1994.A2 C3;

Carruthers, Susan.
"Past future: The troubled history of Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange." National Forum. Spring 2001. Vol. 81, Iss. 2; p. 29 (5 pages)

Cather, Kirsten
""I Know It When I Hear It": The Case of the Blind Film Censor." Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film & Television; Spring2009, Issue 63, p60-62, 3p
UC users only

"Censorship of Motion Pictures." The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 49, No. 1. (Nov., 1939), pp. 87-113.
UC users only

"Censorship, Regulation, and Media Policy in the Twenty-First Century: A Roundtable on Critical Approaches." Velvet Light Trap, vol. 63, pp. 58-71, Spring 2009
UC users only

Censorship-The Unseen Cinema Sex in the Movies.[Video]
Censorship- the unseen cinema chronicles the struggle in Hollywood for artistic freedom. From sex to drugs to propaganda, Hollywood has always been under fire from those who wish to control the content of films. Sex in the movies looks at the role of sex and sexual innuendo in film. Sex symbols Theda Bara, Clara Bow, Marilyn Monroe and others lured audiences to the theatre and continued the tradition of sex in the movies. 50 min.
Media Resources Center: Video/C 8262

Champlin, C.
"What Will H. Hays begat: fifty years of the production code." American Film v. 6 (October 1980) p. 42-6+

Chapman, James.
"'Sordidness, Corruption and Violence almost Unrelieved': Critics, Censors and the Post-war British Crime Film." Contemporary British History, Jun2008, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p181-201, 21p
UC users only

Cohen, Karl F.
Forbidden animation : censored cartoons and blacklisted animators in America. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c1997.
Main Stack NC1766.5.C45.C64 1997

Clark, Ginger.
"Cinema of compromise: Pinky and the politics of post war film production." Western Journal of Black Studies. Fall 1997. Vol. 21, Iss. 3; p. 180 (10 pages)

Collyer, Paddie
"The Last Gasp of Outrage?" Journal of British Cinema & Television; 2008, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p88-98, 11p
UC users only

Commission on Freedom of the Press.
Freedom of the movies; a report on self-regulation from the commission on freedom of the press. Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago press [1947]
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994.A2 C6 1947

Controlling Hollywood : censorship and regulation in the studio era
Edited and with an introduction by Matthew Bernstein. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c1999.
Main PN1995.62.C66 1999
PFA PN1995.62.C66 1999
Contents via Google books

Cornick, Michael
"Cut, Spliced, and Dubbed for the Sky: Film Censorship and the Airline Industry." Journal of Popular Film & Television 36:4 (Winter 2009) p. 174-179
UC users only

Courtney, Susan.
"Picturizing race: Hollywood's censorship of miscegenation and production of racial visibility through imitation of life." Genders 27 (Spring 1998): NA(54).
This article examines the portrayal of race and sexuality in the motion pictures, focusing on the history of Hollywood's Production Code Administration that forbade "miscegenation" from the American screen throughout the first half of the 20th century. The author examines the controversy over the 1934 film 'Imitation of Life.'

Couvares, Francis G.
"The Good Censor: Race, Sex, and Censorship in the Early Cinema." Yale Journal of Criticism 7:2 (1994) p.233 Go to Journal Issue
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Couvares, Francis G. (ed. and introd.)
"Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture." American Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 509-649, Dec 1992
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Couvares, Francis G.
"Hollywood, Main Street, and the Church: Trying to Censor the Movies Before the Production Code." American Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4, Special Issue: Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture. (Dec., 1992), pp. 584-616.
UC users only
"During the 1910's-30's film producers, Protestant churches, the Catholic Church, and other arbiters of morality in film engaged in a struggle for cultural authority over the content of movies. In 1922 the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America appointed Will Hays, a well-known political figure and Presbyterian elder from the Midwest, as its head. Hays sought to avoid legislated censorship by authorizing guidelines for film content. Yet he still encountered strong opposition from Protestant groups over the release of two films in 1927, King of Kings and The Callahans and the Murphys. During the 1930's the Catholic Church assumed a strong role in movie censorship, as a way of achieving respectability and affirming its moral beliefs." [America: History and Life]

Couvares, Francis G.
"Introduction: Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture." American Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4, Special Issue: Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture. (Dec., 1992), pp. 509-524.
UC users only
Introduces a special issue focusing on censorship in the motion picture industry. Discusses varying definitions of censorship and its role in American cultural and urban development. Movies have been used to affirm cultural values, and perhaps uphold visual myths. The author provides a brief bibliographic review of movie history scholarship.

Crowther, Bosley.
Movies and censorship. New York, Public Affairs Pamphlets 1962]
MAIN: H31 .P76 no.332; Storage Info: B 3 513 159

Czitrom, Daniel
"The Politics of Performance: From Theater Licensing to Movie Censorship in Turn-of-the-Century New York." American Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4, Special Issue: Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture. (Dec., 1992), pp. 525-553.
UC users only

Dagron, Alfonso Gumucio
"Argentina: a huge case of censorship." In: Argentine cinema / edited by Tim Barnard. Toronto : Nightwood Editions, c1986.
Main Stack PN1993.5.A7.B3761 1986

Dart, Peter
"Breaking the Code: A Historical Footnote" Cinema Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1. (Autumn, 1968), pp. 39-41.
UC users only

De Grazia, Edward
Banned films : movies, censors, and the First Amendment New York : Bowker, 1982.
DREF: KF4300 .D43 Non-circulating.
MAIN: KF4300 .D43 1982
MOFF: KF4300 .D43 1982

Dengler, Ralph.
"The First Screen Kiss and "The Cry Of Censorship."" Journal of Popular Film and Television 1979 7(3): 267-272.
UC users only
Discusses the 1896 film The Kiss in depth, and questions whether there were objections to the kiss in the film to the extent that has been popularly believed.

Doherty, Thomas Patrick.
Hollywood's censor : Joseph I. Breen & the Production Code Administration Published: New York : Columbia University Press, c2007.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .D64 2007

Doherty, Thomas Patrick.
Pre-code Hollywood : sex, immorality, and insurrection in American cinema, 1930-1934 New York : Columbia University Press, c1999.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .D65 1999
Content via Google books

Lisa Downing
Pornography and the ethics of censorship In: Film and ethics : foreclosed encounters / Lisa Downing and Libby Saxton. London ; New York : Routledge, 2010.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.5 .D63 2010

Draper, Ellen.
""Controversy Has Probably Destroyed Forever the Context": The Miracle and Movie Censorship in America in the Fifties." Velvet Light Trap 1990 (25): 69-79.
"Discusses the New York City censorship debate over the exhibition of Italian director Roberto Rossellini's The Miracle during the early 1950's. The film was originally deemed blasphemous by New York City Commissioner of Licenses Edward McCaffery in 1950 and the issue eventually went before the Supreme Court, which overturned McCaffery's decision and extended 1st Amendment protection to films." [America History & Life]

Dwyer, Susan
"Censorship." In: The Routledge companion to philosophy and film / edited by Paisley Livingston and Carl Plantinga. London ; New York : Routledge, 2009.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994 .R574 2009

Ekwuazi, Hyginus O.
"Discourse on film censorship in Nigeria." In: Cinema discourse / editor, Augustine-Ufua Enahoro. Jos, Nigeria : Positive Education Publishers, c2002.
Main Stack PN1993.5.N55.C53 2002

Ernst, Morris Leopold
Censored; the private life of the movie, / by Morris L. Ernst and Pare Lorentz. [New York, J. Cape and H. Smith, [1930]
NRLF (UCB) 906v.E71

Facey, Paul W.
The Legion of Decency; a sociological analysis of the emergence and development of a social pressure group New York, Arno Press, 1974.
MAIN: PN1995.5 .F271 1974

Farber, Stephen.
The movie rating game. Washington, D.C., Public Affairs Press [1972]
Pacific Film Archive PN1994.A2 F3 1972

Fay, Jennifer.
"The World According to Hollywood, 1918-1939." Velvet Light Trap (Fall 1998): 103(3).
UC users only

Film and censorship : the Index reader
Edited by Ruth Petrie ; introduced by Sheila Whitaker. London ; Washington : Cassell, 1997.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.6 .F56 1997

"Film and censorship's greatest hits." Bitch Magazine: Feminist Response to Pop Culture; Fall2006, Issue 33, p62-65, 4p
UC users only

Fine, Gary Alan
"Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." Social Problems, Vol. 44, No. 3. (Aug., 1997), pp. 297-323.
UC users only
"Abstract: Although social constructionism is the dominant perspective for examining the growth of social problems, this orientation systematically neglects the conditions that produce the recognition of social problems. The approach examines the effects of claims without attending to conditions that lead to these claims - conditions grounded in the interaction between culture and agency: looking forward from the claim, not back. In contrast, I argue from a position of "cautious naturalism" that sociologists should analyze conditions that generate public attention, seeing structure as providing constraints on interpretations. If these conditions are not "objective," neither are they "mere" rhetorical constructions. To this end I draw upon Smelser's "value-added" model, incorporating it within a constructionist model and applying it to the depiction of scandals. Specifically, I examine conditions that led to the public attention given to the 1921 trial of comedian Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle for manslaughter, and how this event played out through claimsmakers' activities." [JSTOR]

Fisher, Robert
"Film censorship and Progressive Reform: The National Board of Censorship of Motion Pictures, 1909-1922." Journal of Popular Film & Television 4:2 (1975)
UC users only

Flesh and blood : the National Society of Film Critics on sex, violence, and censorship
Edited by Peter Keough. San Francisco : Mercury House, c1995.
Main Stack PN1995.F56 1995
Moffitt PN1995.F56 1995

Foerstel, Herbert N.
Banned in the media : a reference guide to censorship in the press, motion pictures, broadcasting, and the internet Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 1998.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
MAIN: P96.C42 U654 1998

Forbidden films : the filmmaker & human rights : in aid of Amnesty International, Toronto, October 18-28, 1984 [edited by Marc Glassman]. [Toronto, Ont. : Toronto Arts Group for Human Rights : blewointmentpress, c1984]
Pacific Film Archive PN1995.6.A1 F67 1984

Franklin, Daniel P.
"Movies, Censorship, and the Law" In: Politics and film : the political culture of film in the United States Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, c2006.
Main Stack PN1995.9.P6.F73 2006

French, Philip.
Censoring the moving image / Philip French, Julian Petley. London ; New York : Seagull Books, c2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.6 .F74 2007

Gardner, Gerald C.
The censorship papers : movie censorship letters from the Hays office, 1934-1968 New York : Dodd, Mead, c1987.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .G371 1987

Ghose, Bhaskar
"Censorship: cuts, snips, and bans." In: Encyclopaedia of Hindi cinema / editorial board, Gulzar, Govind Nihalani, Saibal Chatterjee. New Delhi : Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2003.
S/SE Asia PN1993.5.I8.E539 2003

Gil, Alberto.
La censura cinematográfica en España / Alberto Gil. Barcelona : Ediciones B, 2009.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.65.S7 G55 2009

Golovskoy, Valery
"Film censorship in the USSR." In: The red pencil : artists, scholars, and censors in the USSR / edited by Marianna Tax Choldin and Maurice Friedberg ; Russian portions translated by Maurice Friedberg and Barbara Dash. Boston : Unwin Hyman, c1989
MAIN: Z658.S65 R431 1989

Greeley, Andrew M.
"Sin With Smoke and Mirrors: Sin and Censorship, The Catholic Church and the Motion Picture Industry." Society 35.n3 (March-April 1998): 88(2).
UC users only

Greene, Jane M.
"Hollywood's Production Code and Thirties Romantic Comedy." Film History; History; Media & Film Studies; Media History; Radio; Television; Volume 30 Issue 1 2010 Pages 55 - 73
UC users only

Grieveson, Lee
"Fighting Films: Race, Morality, and the Governing of Cinema, 1912-1915." Cinema Journal 38:1 (Fall 1998) p. 40-72
UC users only

Grieveson, Lee
"Not harmless entertainment: state censorship and cinema in the transitional era." In: American cinema's transitional era : audiences, institutions, practices / edited by Charlie Keil and Shelley Stamp. Berkeley : University of California Press, c2004.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1993.5.U6 A858 2004
Moffitt PN1993.5.U6 A858 2004
Pacific Film Archive PN1993.5.U6 A858 2004

Grieveson, Lee
Policing cinema : movies and censorship in early-twentieth-century America Berkeley : University of California Press, c2004.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .G75 2004; MOFF: PN1995.62 .G75 2004
PFA : PN1995.62 .G75 2004
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip046/2003016038.htm

Guins, Raiford.
Edited clean version : technology and the culture of control / Raiford Guins. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2009.
Main (Gardner) Stacks P96.C42 U655 2009

Gutierrez-Lanza, Maria Del Camino
"Spanish film translation: ideology, censorship, and the supremacy of the national language." In" The changing scene in world languages : issues and challenges / edited by Marian B. Labrum. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Co., c1997.
Main Stack P120.V37.C4 1997

Haberski, Raymond J.
Freedom to offend : how New York remade movie culture / Raymond J. Haberski, Jr. Lexington : University Press of Kentucky, c2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.64.N495 H33 2007

Hammen, Scott
"At war with the army." Film Comment v. 16 (March 1980) p. 19-23

Harley, John Eugene
World-wide influences of the cinema; a study of official censorship and the international cultural aspects of motion pictures Los Angeles, University of Southern California Press, 1940.
MAIN: 906v.H285.wor; Storage Info: $B 51 277

Harris, A.W., Jr.
"Movie Censorship and the Supreme Court: What Next." California Law Review, v. 42 (Spring 1954) p. 122-38
UC users only

Hays, Will H. (Will Harrison)
The Will Hays papers : a guide to the microfilm edition Frederick, MD : University Publications of America, c1986.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .W51 1986

Heins, Marjorie
"The Miracle: Film Censorship and the Entanglement of Church and State." University of Virginia Forum for Contemporary Thought, Oct. 28, 2002 (revised Oct. 6, 2003)

Hendershot, Heather
"Secretary, Homemaker, and 'White' Woman: Industrial Censorship and Betty Boop's Shifting Design." Journal of Design History, Vol. 8, No. 2. (1995), pp. 117-130.
UC users only

Hickin, Daniel
"How to Cope with the Death of Film Censorship." Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film & Television; Spring2009, Issue 63, p63-64, 2p
UC users only
In this article the author discusses issues surrounding the censorship of motion pictures. He proposes that a new engagement with the subject is in order in view of technological innovations that have revolutionized communication, such as the Internet. In addition, its is suggested that censorship be re-evaluated in light of globalization, a movement dedicated to breaking the barriers that exist among populations and cultures. The author contends that these factors have destroyed traditional notions of censorship in individual nations.

Hirano, Kyoko.
"The Japanese Tragedy: Film Censorship and the American Occupation." Radical History Review 1988 (41): 67-92.
"Discusses film censorship during the American occupation of Japan in 1947-52, with specific reference to the film Japanese Tragedy (1946). A 45-minute documentary detailing the wartime government's aggressive militarism, Japanese Tragedy was the only film banned by American censors during the occupation. The American authorities initially approved the film because it rejected emperor worship, militarism, and fascism; but the censors revealed a contradictory occupation policy when they eventually suppressed the movie because of its criticism of the imperial system, which the Americans regarded as necessary for maintaining the social order and discouraging Communist influence." [America History & Life]

Hollywood censored: movies, morality & the Production Code[Video]
First of a four part series exploring why particular works of art became controversial. Part one addresses the mass appeal of movies, including their portrayals of sex and violence which have made them a target of censors since the early days. In the 1930s, Hollywood studios enforced the Production Code, a set of guidelines for movie content, to answer growing charges of immorality. The Code lasted 20 years and still influences moviemaking today. As feature films continue to cause controversy, the question remains: do movies reflect--or cause--social behavior? 2000. 60 min.
Media Resources Center VIDEO/C 6908

Holmes, S.
""The infant medium with the adult manner": the "X" film on television, 1952-1962." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 379-398, Oct. 2001
UC users only
"Drawing on archival research including BBC scripts, programs, documents, and the film industry's trade press, the author traces an alternative historical narrative, exploring how television was involved in constructing a discursive identity for the very features that were forging a different exchange value for films in the period of 1952 to 1962. Focusing primarily on the X-certification film, the author demonstrates how the shifting boundaries of film censorship and the regulation of film on television in fact developed together, each contributing to the institutional policies and cultural reception of the other. Although it is certainly true that the film industry developed strategies to compete with television, this perspective positions the two media as rivals. Considering the two media together, the author aims to demonstrate the crucial importance of correlating film and television history by arguing that the conventional narrative offers only a partial picture of a more complex early interaction." [Communication Abstracts]

Horowitz, David A.
"An Alliance of Convenience: Independent Exhibitors and Purity Crusaders Battle Hollywood, 1920-1940." Historian 1997 59(3): 553-572.
UC users only
"Describes the alliance between reformers who condemned moral laxity in motion pictures and the independent exhibitors who opposed business abuses by the motion picture studios. In the early 1920's motion pictures increasingly came under attack for their emphasis on sex and vice. Such organizations as the Federal Motion Picture Council lobbied Congress for federal legislation to regulate film content. In response, the film industry created the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, headed by Will Hays, as a self-policing agency within the industry. Meanwhile, exhibitors campaigned against such practices as blind selling and block booking by which the studios forced them to show unwanted films. The debate continued until 1940. Although no federal law was ever passed, the threat of censorship forced Hollywood to have Hays create the Production Code, and the courts separated the studios from exhibition, ending the studio monopoly on film distribution." [America History & Life]

Hunnings, Neville March.
Film censors and the law. / Foreword by Frede Castberg. London, Allen & Unwin, 1967.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994 .H8

Hunnings, Neville.
"Censorship, on the way out? N. Hunnings. A view from New York." Sight & Sound v. 38 no. 4 (Autumn 1969) p. 201-3+
UC users only

Hutchinson, J.M.
"Moving Picture Censorship and the First Amendment." Emory Law Journal, 1952
UC users only

Inglis, Ruth A.
"Need for Voluntary Self-Regulation." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 254, The Motion Picture Industry. (Nov., 1947), pp. 153-159.
UC users only

Jacobs, Lea
"An American tragedy: A comparison of film and literary censorship ." Quarterly Review of Film and Video, Volume 15 Issue 4 1995, Pages 87 - 98
UC users only

Jacobs, Lea.
"Industry Self-Regulation and the Problem of Textual Determination." Velvet Light Trap 1989 (23): 4-15.
Discusses the process of self-regulation of the Hollywood film industry during the 1930's, mentioning the establishment of a censorship board by the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association as a response to decency groups. Comments on the effect the censorship board had on the filmmaking process.

Jacobs, Lea.
The wages of sin : censorship and the fallen woman film, 1928-1942 Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press, c1991.
Main Stack PN1995.62.J3 1991
Contents via Google Books

Jacobs, Lea, Maltby, Richard
"Rethinking the production code." Quarterly Review of Film and Video, Volume 15 Issue 4 1995
UC users only

Johnson, Tom
Censored screams: the British ban on Hollywood horror in the thirties / Tom Johnson; with forewords by Richard Gordon and Tom Weaver; afterword by Greg Mank. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, c1997.
UCB Main PN1995.9.H6 J65 1997
Contents via Google books

Johnson, William Bruce.
Miracles & sacrilege : Roberto Rossellini, the church and film censorship in Hollywood Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2007.
MAIN: BX1407.M68 J64 2008

Jowett, Garth S.
""A Capacity for Evil": The 1915 Supreme Court Mutual Decision." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 1989 9(1): 59-78.
UC users only
In a 1915 unanimous decision, the Supreme Court ruled against the Mutual Film Corporation and "denied the motion picture the constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and press." The author discusses the background to this decision and the subsequent impact of censorship on the American film industry.

Jowett, Garth S.
"Moral Responsibility and Commercial Entertainment: Social Control in the United States Film Industry." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 10; 1, 1990

Kerekes, David.
See no evil : banned films and video controversy / David Kerekes & David Slater. Manchester : Headpress, 2000 (2001 [printing])
Pacific Film Archive PN1995.9.V5 K47 2001

Kermode, Mark.
"Horror: on the edge of taste." (censoring horror movies)(includes related article on South African film censorship) Index on Censorship v24, n6 (Nov-Dec, 1995):59 (10 pages).
"The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) finds it difficult to censor American horror movies. Many classic horror movies have been banned in UK due to their hardcore portrayal of death and violence. The British Board received a major threat due to the increase in videos in the 1980s, as previously banned movies were now easily made public through these videos. The release of the uncensored version of 'The Evil Dead' reveals the inability of the BBFC to censor horror movies." [Expanded Academic Index]

Klein, Robert J.
"Film Censorship: The American and British Experience." Villanova Law Review, 12:3, Spring 1967, Page 419
UC users only

Knowles, Dorothy.
The censor, the drama and the film, 1900-1934, / by Dorothy Knowles. Preface by Hubert Griffith. London, G. Allen & Unwin [1934]
NRLF (UCB) 906m.K73

Koenigil, Mark.
Movies in society (sex, crime, and censorship) R. Speller [1962]
MAIN: PN1994 .K64

Kozlovic, Anton Karl.
"Religious Film Fears 1: Satanic Infusion, Graven Images and Iconographic Perversion" Quodlibet Journal:Volume 5 Number 2-3, July 2003

Kozlovic, Anton Karl.
"Religious Film Fears 2: Cinematic Sinfulness." Quodlibet Journal: Volume 5 Number 4, October 2003

Kozlovic, Anton Karl.
"Religious Film Fears 3: Being Sacrilegious, Criticising or Devaluing the Faith." Quodlibet Journal Volume 7 Number 2, April - June 2005

Kozlovic, Anton Karl.
"Religious Film Fears 4: Abandoning orthodoxy, paganisation and the ascendancy of post-Christian culture." Quodlibet Journal, 8, 1-9. 2009

Koppes, Clayton R.
"Film censorship: beyond the heroic interpretation. (Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture)." American Quarterly 44.n4 (Dec 1992): 643(7).
UC users only
A new history of film censorship needs to go beyond textual analysis, and take into account the social aspects of censorship. Kevin Brownlow's 'Behind the Mask of Innocence' considers the impact of censorship on silent films. Leonard Leff and Jerold L. Simmons' 'The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship and the Production Code from the 1920s to the 1960s' traces the history of the production code. Lea Jacobs' 'The Wages of Sin: Censorship and the Fallen Woman Film, 1928-1942' examines the effects of censorship on the 'fallen woman' film.

Koppes, Clayton R.
Hollywood goes to war : how politics, profits, and propaganda shaped World War II movies Berkeley : University of California Press, 1990, c1987.
MAIN: D743.23 .K66 1990; MOFF: D743.23 .K66 1990
MAIN: D743.23 .K661 1987 [earlier edition]
MOFF: D743.23 .K66 1987 [earlier edition]

Koppes, Clayton R.
"Regulating the screen : the Office of Information and the Production Code Administration." In: Boom and bust : the American cinema in the 1940s / Thomas Schatz. New York : Scribner, 1997.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.H55 1990 v.6

Kuhn, Annette.
"The Big Sleep: A Disturbance in the Sphere of Sexuality."Wide Angle, IV/3, 80; p.4-11.
Certain aspects of the mise-en-scene of "The big sleep" may be understood as traces of the operation of a censorship in the text directed at aspects of sexuality.

Kuhn, Annette.
"Children, 'horrific' films, and censorship in 1930s Britain." Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television. Jun 2002. Vol. 22, Iss. 2; p. 197
UC users only

Kuhn, Annette.
Cinema, censorship, and sexuality, 1909-1925 London ; New York : Routledge, 1989.
MAIN: PN1995.65.G7 K84 1988
PFA: PN1995.65.G7 K84 1989

Ladenson, Elisabeth.
"Emma Bovary goes to Hollywood.(Critical essay)." Yale Review 94.4 (Oct 2006): 20-46.
UC users only
The essay examines the influence of Gustave Flaubert's novel 'Madame Bovary' on the American movie industry. Discussion includes censorship, the Hays Code, and alteration of source material.

LaSalle, Mick.
Complicated women : sex and power in pre-code Hollywood Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2000.
MAIN: PN1995.9.W6 L37 2000
MOFF: PN1995.9.W6 L37 2000
PFA : PN1995.9.W6 L37 2000;

LaSalle, Mick.
Dangerous men : pre-code Hollywood and the birth of the modern man New York, N.Y. : Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2002.
MAIN: PN1995.9.M46 L37 2002
PFA : PN1995.9.M46 L37 2002

Lederer, Susan E.
"Repellent Subjects: Hollywood Censorship and Surgical Images in the 1930s." Literature and Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 91-113, Spring 1998.
UC users only

Leff, Leonard J.
"The Breening of America." PMLA, Vol. 106, No. 3. (May, 1991), pp. 432-445.
UC users only
In 1930, to blunt attacks from legislators, social reformers, and investors, the American movie companies adopted the Production Code, a skein of dos and don'ts that regulated, among other things, the screen treatment of sex and crime and that, by 1934, had its own executive apparatus. Though Joseph I. Breen, the director of the Production Code Administration, was called "the Hitler of Hollywood," Production Code censorship operated through negotiation and compromise; even Breen himself was less repressive or moralistic than reporters or historians imagined. From 1934 to 1941, the Production Code Administration, the West Coast studios, and the East Coast corporate offices formed a machinelike network whose power Breen used not only to license but to facilitate the production of controversial films, including those presumed most harmed by the code-sex comedies and social-problem pictures.

Leff, Leonard J.
The dame in the kimono : hollywood, censorship, and the production code Lexington : University Press of Kentucky, c2001.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .L4 2001
PFA : PN1995.62 L44 2001;
MAIN: PN1995.62 .L4 1990 [earlier edition]
MOFF: PN1995.62 .L4 1990 [earlier edition]

Leff, Leonard J.
"Hitchcock and the Censors." World and I 14.8 (August 1999): 108.
UC users only

Leonard J. Leff
"A Test of American Film Censorship: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)." Cinema Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Spring, 1980), pp. 41-55
UC users only

Leff, Leonard J.
"A Test of American Film Censorship: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)." In: Hollywood as historian : American film in a cultural context / edited by Peter C. Rollins. Lexington, Ky. : University Press of Kentucky, c1983.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.H5 H64 1983
Moffitt PN1995.9.H5 H64 1983 c.11
Pacific Film Archive PN1995.9.H5 H64 1983

Lev, Peter
"Censorship and self regulation." In: Transforming the screen, 1950-1959 New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.H55 1990 v.7

Lewis, Jon. Hollywood v. hard core : how the struggle over censorship saved the modern film industry / Jon Lewis New York : New York University, c2002.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.62 .L47 2000
Pacific Film Archive PN1995.62 .L48 2000
Contents via Google books

Lindsey, Shelley Stamp
""Oil upon the Flames of Vice": The Battle over White Slave Films in New York City." Film History 9:4 (1997)
UC users only

Linsley, William
"The Case Against Censorship of Pornography." In: Pornography : research advances and policy considerations / editors Dolf Zillmann & Jennings Bryant. Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates, 1989.
Contents via Google books
Main (Gardner) Stacks HQ471 .P64631 1989
Moffitt HQ471 P6463 1989 c.11

Llopis, Bienvenido.
La censura franquista en el cine de papel : un apasionante recorrido por los carteles, fotos, postal y programas de mano, prohibidos en la España de Franco / Bienvenido Llopis, Luís Miguel Carmona. Madrid : Cacitel, 2009.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.P5 L56 2009

Lugowski, David M.
"Queering the (New) Deal: Lesbian and Gay Representation and the Depression-Era Cultural Politics of Hollywood's Production Code." Cinema Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2. (Winter, 1999), pp. 3-35.
UC users only
Queer representation was common in American cinema during the Great Depression, and the records of Hollywood's Production Code Administration prove that those images were read as such at the time. Queerness was criticized because it refracted traditional masculinity imperiled by the socioeconomic crisis, yet it was essential as entertainment and ideological prop.

Lyons, Charles
The new censors : movies and the culture wars Philadelphia : Temple University Press, c1997.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .L96 1997
Contents via Google books

Lyons, Charles Ress
"Don't watch that movie. Censorship and protests of films in America, 1980-1992." [Disseration] Columbia University Digital Commons

Maltby, Richard.
"The genesis of the production code." Quarterly Review of Film and Video, Volume 15 Issue 4 1995, pp. 5-32

Maltby, Richard.
"The Production Code and the Hays Office." In: Balio, Tino. Grand design--Hollywood as a modern business enterprise, 1930-1939 New York : Scribner ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York : Maxwell Macmillan International, c1993.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.H55 1990 v.5
PFA PN1993.5.U6.H6 1990 vol.5

Maltby, Richard
"More Sinned Against than Sinning: The Fabrications of "Pre-Code Cinema"" Senses of Cinema Nov. 2003

Maltby, Richard
"To Prevent the Prevalent Type of Book": Censorship and Adaptation in Hollywood, 1924-1934." American Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4, Special Issue: Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture. (Dec., 1992), pp. 554-583.
UC users only

Maltby, Richard
"The Production Code and the Hays Office." In: Grand design--Hollywood as a modern business enterprise, 1930-1939 / Tino Balio. New York : Scribner ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; New York : Maxwell Macmillan International, c1993.
Media Center PN1993.5.U6.H55 1990 v.5
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.H55 1990 v.5
PFA PN1993.5.U6.H6 1990 vol.5

MacDonald, Kevin
"Poor Tom." (Michael Powell's 'Peeping Tom') Index on Censorship Nov-Dec 1995 v24 n6 p54(2)

McCabe, George P.
Forces molding and muddling the movies, by Geo. P. McCabe ... a paper on censorship of motion pictures in the United States with suggestions for some regulatory control laws. Washington, 1926.
NRLF (UCB) 906m.M121

McGehee, Margaret T.
"Disturbing the Peace: "Lost Boundaries," "Pinky," and Censorship in Atlanta, Georgia, 1949-1952." Cinema Journal 46:1 (Fall 2006) p. 23-51

UC users only

Mehta, Monika.
"Reframing Film Censorship." Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film & Television, Spring2009, Issue 63, p66-69, 4p
UC users only
The article discusses aspects of motion picture censorship as practiced by the government of India. The author contends that within the Central Board of Film Certification, India's film censorship organization, there exists a spectrum of of opinion and taste among the censor screening motion pictures for release on the subcontinent. The author asserts that examination of the government mechanism that oversees censorship, but that does not advance an official point of view, is an important ingredient in the study of censorship in general. Aspects of the book "Liberty and License in Indian Cinema," by Aruna Vasudev are discussed.
Michael Powell's movie 'Peeping Tom' re-release in 1994 benefited from the negative criticism it received in 1960. In 1960, the British Board of Film Censors gave the movie an X certificate and the financiers and distributors stopped the film from circulation.

MacGregor, Ford H.
"Official Censorship Legislation." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 128, The Motion Picture in Its Economic and Social Aspects. (Nov., 1926), pp. 163-174.
UC users only

Miller, Frank
Censored Hollywood : sex, sin & violence on screen Atlanta : Turner Pub. ; Kansas City, Mo. : Distributed by Andrews and McMeel, c1994.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .M55 1994

Miller, John M.
"'Frankly My Dear I Just - Don't - Care': Val Lewton and Censorship at Selznick International Pictures." Library Chronicle of the University of Texas, 1986, 36, 11-31.

Mills, Jane
The money shot : cinema, sin, and censorship Annandale, NSW : Pluto Press Australia, 2001.
MAIN: PN1995 .M533 2001;

Moley, Raymond
The Hays office [New York, J. S. Ozer, 1971, c1945]
MAIN: PN1993.M657 M61 1971
MAIN: PN1993.M657 M6 1945 [earlier edition]

Monaco, Paul.
History of the American cinema ; v. 8": The sixties : 1960-1969 / Paul Monaco. Charles Scribner's Sons, c2001.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1993.5.U6 H55 1990 v.8
Media Resources Center PN1993.5.U6 H55 1990 v.8

Montagne, Albert.
Histoire juridique des interdits cinématographiques en France, 1909-2001 / Albert Montagne ; préface de Jean Sagnes. [Paris] : Harmattan, 2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.65.F8 M658 2007

Moritz, William
"Film censorship during the Nazi era." In: Degenerate art : the fate of the avant-garde in Nazi Germany / [edited by] Stephanie Barron ; with contributions by Peter Guenther ... [et al.]. Los Angeles, Calif. : Los Angeles County Museum of Art ; New York : H.N. Abrams, c1991.
Main Stack N6868.D3388 1991b
Moffitt N6868.D3388 1991b

Morriss, Gary
"Public Enemy: Warner Bros. in the Pre-Code Era." Bright Lights, September 1996 | Issue 17
UC users only

Movie censorship and American culture
Edited by Francis G. Couvares. Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press, c1996.
Main Stack PN1995.62.M68 1996
Moffitt PN1995.62.M68 1996
Partial contents via Google books

Muscio, Giuliana.
Hollywood's new deal Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1996.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N47.M87 1997
Includes a discussion of the Hollywood Production Code during the 1930s

Nair, P.K.
"Censorship." In: Behind the scenes of Hindi cinema : a visual journey through the heart of Bollywood / [edited] by Johan Manschot and Marijke de Vos. Amsterdam : KIT, c2005.
PFA PN1993.5.I8.B385 2005

National Legion of Decency.
Motion pictures classified by National Legion of Decency : a moral estimate of entertainment feature motion pictures / <1959> New York : National Legion of Decency, 1959.
PFA : PN1995.5 .N37 1959

Nichols, John
"Countering hitCensorship: Edgar Dale and the Film Appreciation Movement." Cinema Journal 46:1 (Fall 2006) Go to Journal Issue p. 3-22
UC users only

Nimmer, Melville B.
"The Constitutionality of Official Censorship of Motion Pictures." The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Summer, 1958), pp. 625-657

Noriega, Chon
" "Something's Missing Here!": Homosexuality and Film Reviews during the Production Code Era, 1934-1962." Cinema Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1. (Autumn, 1990), pp. 20-41.
UC users only

Nornes, Markus.
"Censorship." In: Research guide to Japanese film studies / Abé Mark Nornes and Aaron Gerow. nn Arbor : Center for Japanese Studies, The University of Michigan, 2009.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1993.5.J3 N67 2009

Obscenity and film censorship : an abridgement of the Williams report
Edited by Bernard Williams Great Britain. Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1981
Pacific Film Archive KD8075 .A8672 1981

Parker, Alison M. (Alison Marie)
"Mothering the Movies: Women Reformers and Popular Culture." In: Purifying America : women, cultural reform, and pro-censorship activism, 1873-1933 Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Main Stack HQ1419.P27 1997

Patton, C.
"White racism/black signs: censorship and images of race relations." Journal of Communication, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 65-77, Spring 1995
UC users only
"In this article, the author traces the unraveling of one interpretive logic and the emergence of another. The newly polyvalent sign-image emerged simultaneously with the film industry's new concern about prejudice. In particular, images of the black body that had once been so dangerous that they had to be suppressed became a means to signify white racism. The end of official, racially based censorship occurred simultaneously with the inauguration of a new meaning for the black body in film. In the first section of the article, the author discusses the simultaneous establishment of legal rights to censor film and proscriptions on particular racial representation. The second section describes several changes in the structure and language of the Hays Code, which suggest that the industry was altering its view of film and beginning to censor images by the context of their use. The final section suggests that the end of race-based prohibitions did not liberate the sexual-racial history on which the meaning-and censorship?of images of black bodies had depended, but repressed that history by representing the experience of racial oppression to a white audience as a social problem." [Communication Abstracts]

Paul, Elliot
With a Hays nonny nonny. New York, Random House [1942]
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994.9 .P3 1942

Pennington, Jody W.
"Drawing the Line." In: The history of sex in American film / Jody W. Pennington. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.S45 P437 2007

Phelps, Guy.
Film censorship / by Guy Phelps ; with an introduction by Alexander Walker. London : Gollancz, 1975.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994 .P531

Phillips, Baxter.
Cut, the unseen cinema / by Baxter Phillips. [New York] : Bounty Books, c1975.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994.A1 P5 1975
Pacific Film Archive PN1994.A1 P5 1975

Phillips, Kendall R.
Controversial cinema : the films that outraged America / Kendall R. Phillips. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.S284 P45 2008
Contents: Acknowledgments -- Introduction -- ch. 1. Censorship, culture, and controversy -- ch. 2. Sex, gender, and sexuality : Jonathan Demme's The silence of the lambs -- ch. 3. Violence and crime : Oliver Stone's Natural born killers -- ch. 4. Race and ethnicity : Spike Lee's Do the right thing -- ch. 5. Religion : Mel Gibson's The passion of the Christ -- Conclusion -- Notes -- Selected bibliography -- Index.

Phillips, Kendall R.
"Censorship, culture, and controversy." In: Controversial cinema : the films that outraged America / Kendall R. Phillips. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.S284 P45 2008

Poe, G. Thomas
"Censorship as Textual Ellipsis: A Post-Structuralist Reading of the Censored Film." Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism Vol. VI, No. 1: Fall 1991

Pollard, Tom (Leslie Thomas)
Sex and violence : the Hollywood censorship wars / Tom Pollard. Boulder : Paradigm Publishers, c2009.
Moffitt PN1995.62 .P65 2009

Potamianos, George.
"Movie Mad: Audiences and Censorship in A California Town, 1916-1926." Velvet Light Trap 1998 (42): 62-75.
"Concerned about the indiscriminate film viewing behavior of women, children, and the working classes, the Sacramento Women's Council organized a Better Films Board in the 1920's to exercise censorship at the local level and nurture middle-class tastes among the moviegoing public." [America History & Life]

Potts, Richard; Belden, Angela.
"Parental Guidance: A Content Analysis of MPAA Motion Picture Rating Justifications 1993-2005." Current Psychology, Dec2009, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p266-283, 18p
UC users only

Prince, Stephen
"Censorship and Screen Violence before 1930." In: Classical film violence: designing and regulating brutality in Hollywood cinema, 1930-1968 / Stephen Prince. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c2003.
Full-text available online (UCB users only)
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.V5 P75 2003

Projansky, Sarah
"The Elusive/Ubiquitous Representation of Rape: A Historical Survey of Rape in U.S. Film, 1903-1972." Cinema Journal, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 63-90
UC users only

Randall, Richard S.
Censorship of the movies; the social and political control of a mass medium Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.
MOFF: KF4300 .R3

Reed, Elaine Walls.
""A very unusual practise [sic]": miscegenation and the film industry in the Hays era.(movie morals code and portrayals of mixed race relations)." West Virginia University Philological Papers 50 (Fall 2003): 42(11).
"Black Films, White Censors: Oscar Micheaux Confronts Censorship in New York, Virginia, and Chicago." In: Movie Censorship and American Culture / edited by Francis G. Couvares. pp: 159-86 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, c1996.
Main Stack PN1995.62.M68 1996
Moffitt PN1995.62.M68 1996

Rhona J. Berenstein
"Adaptation, Censorship, and Audiences of Questionable Type: Lesbian Sightings in "Rebecca" (1940) and "The Uninvited" (1944)Adaptation, Censorship, and Audiences of Questionable Type: Lesbian Sightings in "Rebecca" (1940) and "The Uninvited" (1944)." Cinema Journal, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Spring, 1998), pp. 16-37
UC users only

Richards, Jeffrey
"British film censorship." In: The British cinema book / edited by Robert Murphy. London : British Film Institute, 1997.
Main Stack PN1993.5.G7.B66 1997

Robb, David L.
Operation Hollywood : how the Pentagon shapes and censors the movies Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 2004.
MAIN: PN1995.9.A72 R63 2004; MOFF: PN1995.9.A72 R63 2004; View current status of this item
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0415/2004003017.html

Robertson, James C.
The British Board of Film Censors : film censorship in Britain, 1896-1950 London ; Dover, New Hampshire : Croom Helm, c1985.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994.A5 G837 1985
Contents via Google books

Robertson, James C.
"British Film Censorship goes to war." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 1982 , pages 49 - 64
UC users only

Robertson, James C.
The hidden cinema : British film censorship in action, 1913-1975 / James C. Robertson. London ; New York : Routledge, 1993.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.65.G7 R641 1989

Rosenbloom, Nancy J.
"Between Reform and Regulation: The Struggle over Film Censorship in Progressive America, 1909-1922." Film History, Vol. 1, No. 4 (1987), pp. 307-325
UC users only

Rosenbloom, Nancy J.
"From Regulation To Censorship: Film and Political Culture in New York in the Early Twentieth Century." Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2004 3(4): 369-406.

Rosenbloom, Nancy J.
"In Defense of the Moving Pictures: the People's Institute, the National Board Of Censorship and the Problem of Leisure in Urban America." American Studies 1992 33(2): 41-60.
"Founded in 1909 by the People's Institute, a progressive community organization based in New York City's Lower East Side, the National Board of Censorship defended the motion picture industry and attacked censorship. The board formed a partnership with the Motion Picture Patents Company, creating an alliance of businessmen and reformers to counteract middle-class criticism of the movies and to try to increase movie patronage among the middle class. Together with the People's Institute, they believed that movies could create a "socially rewarding form of leisure activity." Theirs was a progressive vision that sought to advance social ideals." [America History and Life]

Rosencrans, S.
"Fighting films: a First Amendment analysis of censorship of violent motion pictures." Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts v. 14 (Spring 1990) p. 451-74

Roth, Chris.
"Three Decades of Film Censorship...right before your eyes." (cover story) Humanist, Jan/Feb2000, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p9, 5p,
UC users only

Sandler, Kevin S.
"The Future of U.S. Film Censorship Studies." Velvet Light Trap, vol. 63, pp. 69-71, Spring 2009
UC users only

Sandler, Kevin S.
"The Naked Truth: "Showgirls" and the Fate of the X/NC-17 Rating." Cinema Journal, Vol. 40, No. 2, Winter, 2001
UC users only

Schaefer, Eric
"Resisting Refinement: The Exploitation Film and Self-Censorship." Film History, Vol. 6, No. 3, Exploitation Film (Autumn, 1994), pp. 293-313
UC users only

Schaefer, Eric
""Thoroughly vile and disgusting": the exploitation film and censorship." In: "Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!" : a history of exploitation films, 1919-1959 / Eric Schaefer. Durham, NC : Duke University Press, 1999.
Main Stack PN1995.9.S284.S33 1999

Schindler, Colin
"The Hays Office." In: Hollywood in Crisis : Cinema and American Society, 1929-1939 London ; New York : Routledge, 1996.
Full text available online [UCB users only]
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1993.5.U65 S52 1996 AVAILABLE
Pacific Film Archive PN1993.5.U65 S52 1996

Schumach, Murray
The face on the cutting room floor : the story of movie and television censorship / Murray Schumach. New York : Da Capo Press, [1975, c1964]
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994.A2 S3
Pacific Film Archive PN1994.A2 S3 1975

Septimus, J., student author
"The MPAA ratings system: a regime of private censorship and cultural manipulation." Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts v. 21 (Fall 1996) p. 69-93

Serna, Laura I.
""As A Mexican I Feel It's My Duty:" Citizenship, Censorship, And The Campaign Against Derogatory Films In Mexico, 1922-1930." Americas (00031615), Oct2006, Vol. 63 Issue 2, p225-244, 20p

Sex, Censorship and the Silver Screen.[videorecording]
Dist.: Films Media Group. 2007.

The Early Decades. While the earliest motion pictures were admired simply for their novelty, viewers soon demanded more. This program describes the discovery of sex as a surefire cinematic attraction and the outrages it provoked among religious and civic authorities during Hollywood's formative years. Documenting the rise of William Hays as the arbiter of movie morality--and the studio system's answer, after the Fatty Arbuckle fiasco, to the threat of government censorship--the program explores the artistic and cultural shock waves created by Theda Bara, Rudolph Valentino, Erich Von Stroheim, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Jean Harlow, Busby Berkeley, Mae West, Barbara Stanwyck, and many other early film luminaries. 50 min. DVD 8851

From the Depression to WWII. In what many see as Hollywood's Golden Age, the offices of William Hays and Joseph Breen worked overtime to combat sexuality and subversion in American movies. This program examines the products of that era--films that danced around the standards of the Production Code and paved the way for increasingly daring storytelling and images. From the modesty of It Happened One Night to the shocking and nearly prohibited use of "damn" in Gone with the Wind to the ambiguous morality of Double Indemnity, the program surveys the achievements of Clark Gable, Hedy Lamarr, Errol Flynn, Lana Turner, Rita Hayworth, Jane Russell, Cecil B. DeMille, Frank Capra, Billy Wilder, Preston Sturges, and other screen artists. The forces that led to Hays' dismissal and the weakening of the Code are discussed in depth. 72 min. DVD 8852

The 1950s and '60s. After World War II, the wholesomeness of American movies faced a tidal wave of change--from outside, as a growing number of provocative foreign films made their way to the U.S., and from within, as car culture flowered and drive-in theaters sprang up across the country. This program documents the period, from the birth of art house cinema to the ascent of boundary-busting American actresses such as Ingrid Bergman, Brigitte Bardot, Sophia Loren, Marilyn Monroe and directors like Marlon Brando and Stanley Kubrick. Studying the shifting moral standards that Hollywood, Italian cinema, and the French New Wave signaled--and which the Catholic Legion of Decency resisted tooth and nail. The 1952 Supreme Court decision granting First Amendment protection to motion pictures is also highlighted. 59 min. DVD 8853

The Late 1960s to the '90s In 1965, the Catholic Legion of Decency closed its doors; the following year, the Hays Code was scrapped. This program looks at the cinematic milestones which prompted these events and the age of freewheeling film artistry that ensued, despite attempts at censorship issuing from the highest political level. Shedding light on the release of The Pawnbroker and director Sidney Lumet's historic confrontation with the Legion, the program showcases the forging of the Motion Picture Association of America's rating system and the eventual association of the "X" classification with pornography. The impact of AIDS, the struggle against child pornography, and the creation of the NC-17 rating are also illuminated. 62 min. DVD 8854

Shindler, Colin
"The Hayes Code." In: Hollywood in crisis : cinema and American society, 1929-1939 Published: London ; New York : Routledge, 1996.
MAIN: PN1993.5.U65 S52 1996
PFA : PN1993.5.U65 S52 1996
Full text available online (UCB users only)

Shurlock, Geoffrey
"The Motion Picture Production Code." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 254, The Motion Picture Industry. (Nov., 1947), pp. 140-146.
UC users only

Simmons, Jerold.
"The Censoring of Rebel Without A Cause." Journal of Popular Film and Television 1995 23(2): 56-63.
"Details the scenes of sex and violence that featured teenagers in Rebel without a Cause (1955) and that made the film subject to close examination by the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America's Production Code Administration and the British Board of Film Censors. The censors' demands did not significantly diminish the effect of the released film." [America History & Life]

Simmons, Jerold L.
"Challenging the Production Code: The Man with the Golden Arm." (RETROSPECTIVES)(Critical Essay)." Journal of Popular Film and Television 33.1 (Spring 2005): 39(10).
UC users only
"The censorship battle over The Man with the Golden Arm (1955) involved more than a defiant director challenging Hollywood's conservative Production Code Administration. Instead, PCA director Geoffrey Shurlock worked with Otto Preminger and United Artists in an attempt to use the film to convince the Motion Picture Association's board of directors to remove the drug restriction from the Production Code. Shurlock's efforts failed largely because Preminger and United Artists rushed the picture toward release and in the process angered members of the board of directors, causing them to reject the film. The picture's success caused the board to order a major reassessment of the Code in 1956." [Expanded Academic Index]

Simmons, Jerold L.
"A damned nuisance: the production code and the profanity amendment of 1954." Journal of Popular Film and Television 25.n2 (Summer 1997): 76(7).
UC users only
Hollywood's Production Code was designed and adopted in 1930 by the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in response to the public's increasing protest over suggestive and violent movies. The code banned the showing of films which featured subjects such as drug addiction and prostitution and which contained profane expressions. In early 1954, Geoffrey Shurlock, the Production Code Administration's new president, created a few minor amendments of the code, in an attempt to remove bans on several forbidden expressions such as 'damn' and 'hell.' The Code was replaced by ratings in 1966.

Simmons, Jerold L.
"The Production Code and Precedent: How Hollywood's Censors Sought to Eliminate Brothels and Prostitution in From Here to Eternity and East of Eden. Journal of Popular Film and Television 1992 20(3): 70-80.
UC users only
The Production Code Administration strictly enforced its ban on the depiction of brothels on the screen in the film adaptations of From Here to Eternity (1953) and East of Eden (1955), resulting in a dilution of their dramatic effectiveness.

Simmons, Jerold L.
"The Production Code: Under New Management: Geoffrey Shurlock, The Bad Seed, and Tea and Sympathy." Journal of Popular Film and Television 1994 22(1): 2-10.
As new director of the Production Code Administration, an agency that enforced a moral movie code, Geoffrey Shurlock approved screen versions of the controversial Broadway plays The Bad Seed (1956) and Tea and Sympathy (1956), thereby undermining the Production Code's authority with the Hollywood establishment.

Simmons, Jerold L.
"A Tale of Two Censors: The British Board of Film Censors, the Production Code Administration, and the Sad Fate of I Am A Camera." North Dakota Quarterly 1993 61(3): 130-147.
Efforts by the Distributors Corporation of America to release the 1955 British film I Am a Camera in America ran into censorship problems with the Production Code Administration in the United States and the British Board of Film Censors, two entities that attempted to remove references to promiscuity and abortion from the film.

Simmons, Jerold L.
"Violent Youth: The Censoring and Public Reception of The Wild One and The Blackboard Jungle." Film History: An International Journal, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 381-391, 2008
UC users only

Single beds and double standards[Video]
Hollywood had become a fairy-tale city of fabulous wealth and dizzying success, when a series of scandals shattered the dream. The Fatty Arbuckle case so shocked America that producers appointed Will Hays to clean up the industry before the public's moral outrage put them all out of work. Hays encouraged "human, heartwarming pictures" and issued a strictly enforced production code designed to keep films wholesome. Hollywood had found its savior. But his price was self-imposed censorship which would rule Hollywood for forty years. 52 min.
Media Resources Center VIDEO/C 6156

Skidmore, Max J.
"Censorship: Who Needs It? How the Conventional Wisdom Restricts Information's Free Flow." Journal of Popular Culture, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 143-56, Winter 2001
UC users only

Skinner, James M.
The cross and the cinema : the Legion of Decency and the National Catholic Office for Motion Pictures, 1933-1970 Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 1993.
MAIN: BX1407.M68 S55 1993
MOFF: BX1407.M68 S55 1993
Skinner reveals how the Roman Catholic Church, through its agency, the National Legion of Decency, dominated the American film censorship scene in tandem with the Production Code Administration. In its heyday in the 1930s and 40s, the Legion claimed a membership of over eleven million Americans--about one moviegoer in twelve--and brought movie moguls such as David O. Selznick and Howard Hughes to their knees in determined campaigns to bar what it deemed unsuitable entertainment. Some of the most controversial titles in the annals of movie censorship, including The Outlaw, Duel in the Sun, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, and The Pawnbroker, are featured as targets of clerical wrath in this study which covers four decades of film history. [publisher's description]

Skinner, James M.
"The Tussle with Russell: The Outlaw as a Landmark in American Film Censorship." North Dakota Quarterly 1981 49(1): 4-12.
Provides a brief background of movie censorship during the 1940's, focusing on the controversy surrounding Howard Hughes's film, The Outlaw, starring the then-unknown Jane Russell, and Hughes's battle with the Hays Office, officially the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (the MPPDA), and the Legion of Decency.

Slide, Anthony.
'Banned in the USA' : British films in the United States and their censorship, 1933-1960 London; New York : I.B.Tauris Publishers ; 1998.
MAIN: PN1995.62.G7 S55 1998
PFA : PN1995.62 .S55 1998

Smith, J. Douglas.
"Patrolling the Boundaries of Race: Motion Picture Censorship and Jim Crow in Virginia, 1922-1932." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 2001 21(3): 273-291.
UC users only
"In 1922, as supporters and opponents throughout the nation and world debated the merits of censorship, the Virginia General Assembly authorized the creation of a three-member Board of Censors charged with reviewing each motion picture submitted for public viewing in the commonwealth. The legislative act instructed the board to license all films unless "a part thereof is obscene, indecent, immoral, inhuman, or is of such a character that its exhibition would tend to corrupt morals or incite to crime." Although the act did not mention racial content, Virginia's censors clearly understood that their mandate demanded the prohibition of films that portrayed Blacks in ways that did not comport with prevailing standards of acceptance. In this regard, the censors worked hard to make sure that Virginians saw only stereotypical images of Blacks on the screen: the faithful servant, the ignorant child, and the loathsome criminal. Rather than focusing on images of Blacks that did appear on the screen in Virginia, a look at materials left on the cutting room floor contributes to an understanding of why motion pictures and the new mass culture proved so threatening to the management of White supremacy in the 1920s, which this article examines." [Communication Abstracts]

Smith, Sarah J. (Sarah Jane)
Children, cinema and censorship : from Dracula to the Dead End Kids London ; New York : I. B. Tauris ; New York : Distributed in the US by Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Full-text available online [UCB users only]
MAIN: PN1995.9.C45 S56 2005

Sova, Dawn B.
Forbidden films : censorship histories of 125 motion pictures / Dawn B. Sova ; foreword by Marjorie New York : Facts on File, c2001.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.62 .S67 2001
Pacific Film Archive PN1995.62 .S67 2001

Springhall, John
"Censoring Hollywood: Youth, Moral Panic and Crime/Gangster Movies of the 1930s." Journal of Popular Culture Volume 32 Page 135 - Winter 1998
UC users only
"Moral panic about the mass media is not new. Since at least the 1830's adults attempted to shift the blame for social breakdown onto aspects of youth culture such as penny theaters, dime novels, gangster films, "horror comics," television, and video games during periods of uneasiness about juvenile crime. Media with mass appeal and with a technology primarily understood by the young spur the most intense social concern. The author focuses on film censorship campaigns during the 1930's in Great Britain and the United States to affirm his assertion that environmental, domestic, and psychological factors outweigh popular culture as predeterminants of juvenile delinquency. The article analyzes the 1934 Hays Code's attempt to ban lawlessness in the movies and the 1933-34 Payne Study and Experiment Fund assessment of the affects of movies on the young." [America History & Life]

Springhall, John
"Gangster Film Panic: Censoring Hollywood in the 1930s." In: Youth, Popular Culture, and Moral Panics. Basingstoke : Macmillan, 1998.
Full-text available online [UCB users only]
Main (Gardner) Stacks HM101 .S7736 1998

Street, John
"The Politics of Popular Culture." In: The Blackwell companion to political sociology / edited by Kate Nash and Alan Scott. Malden, Mass. : Blackwell, c2001.
Main (Gardner) Stacks JA76 .B58 2001

Strub, Whitney.
"Black And White And Banned All Over: Race, Censorship And Obscenity In Postwar Memphis." Journal Of Social History, Spring2007, Vol. 40 Issue 3, P685-715, 31p
UC users only

Tarantino, Quentin
"It's cool to be banned." Index on Censorship, Volume 24, Issue 6 November 1995 , pages 56 - 58
UC users only

This Film is Not Yet Rated[videorecording]
Kirby Dick's provocative film investigates the secretive and inconsistent process by which the Motion Picture Association of America rates films. Kirby looks at some of the controversial rating decisions of the past four decades, hires private eyes to find out who these anonymous raters are and puts his own film through the rating process. 2006. 98 min.
DVD 6868

Tropiano, Stephen.
Obscene, indecent, immoral, and offensive : 100+ years of censored, banned, and controversial films New York : Limelight Editions, 2009.
Main PN1995.62 .T76 2009)

Vasey, Ruth.
"Beyond sex and violence: 'Industry Policy' and the regulation of Hollywood movies, 1922-1939.(Rethinking the Production Code)." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 15.n4 (March 1995): 65(21).
UC users only
"The 1930 Production Code, which was intended as a response to public protest and opinion, was actually influenced by industry policy, which was affected by domestic and foreign issues. Even before the onset of sound in motion pictures, which is normally seen as the impetus for censorship, the industry had been working with representational problems. This stemmed from the need to be sensitive to groups of people and other nationalities in portraying places and people in movies. So, while morality and legality were important aspects of the Production Code, it also addressed issues of representation." [Expanded Academic Index]

Vaughn, Stephen
Freedom and entertainment : rating the movies in an age of new media / Stephen Vaughn. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.V38 2006
PFA PN1993.5.U6.V38 2006
Contents: New leaders and a new system -- Sex, profanity, and violence -- The X rating and the home entertainment revolution -- The technology of special effects and the effects of screen violence -- Pornography -- The anti-pornography crusade -- Hollywood, drugs, and religion -- NC-17 -- Television -- The digital future.

Vaughn, Stephen
"Morality and Entertainment: The Origins of the Motion Picture Production Code." The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 1. (Jun., 1990), pp. 39-65.
UC users only
"As it became obvious that the motion picture industry was to evolve into a huge enterprise that would touch the lives of millions of Americans, the Catholic Church and other "traditional agencies of socialization" became more active in taking steps to regulate its activity. Central to this was concern over the influence of the cinema on the nation's youth and which agencies should be allowed "to communicate society's values." The Motion Picture Production Code of 1930 evolved from a resistance to government control. The Motion Picture Producers and Directors Association (MPPDA) was formed to provide a forum for more desirable self-regulation. The MPPDA relied on the services of Reverend Daniel A. Lord and others to provide moral Christian input into the regulation of the film industry. Lord saw it as an opportunity to incorporate "the Ten Commandments [into] the newest and most widespread form of entertainment." Hollywood, however, adopted the production code for primarily economic reasons because it "promised to forestall costly government censorship." The depression added to this sensitivity to economic reality. By the 1940's, as legal challenges became more prevalent and America became "more skeptical about religious faith," the effectiveness of the code began to decline." [America: History and Life]

Vieira, Mark.
Sin in soft focus : pre-code Hollywood New York : Harry N. Abrams, 1999.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .V54 1999
PFA : PN1995.62 .V49 1999

Walsh, Frank
Sin and censorship : the Catholic Church and the motion picture industry New Haven : Yale University Press, c1996.
MAIN: PN1995.5 .W27 1996
MOFF: PN1995.5 .W27 1996
Contents via Google Books

Ward, R.
"Golden age, blue pencils: the Hal Roach Studios and three case studies of censorship during Hollywood's studio era." Media History, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 103-119, June 2002
"In 1915, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that motion pictures were not entitled to First Amendment protection because they were a business pure and simple, originated and conducted for profit and not to be regarded as part of the press of the country or as organs of public opinion. From that point until the court reversed itself in 1952, motion pictures were subjected to censorship by a variety of organizations from nationwide watchdog groups to local police departments. In recent years, much research has been done on the intricacies of film censorship in the United States. The focus has been the output of the major studies. Scant attention has been paid thus far to the impact of the censorship mechanism on minor independent producers who, despite being on the fringe of the industry, nevertheless secured mainstream distribution for their films. In an effort to explore the treatment of independent films by the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America and the treatment of the group by at least one minor independent producer, Hal Roach Studios, this article examines the following three films: Topper, Turnabout, and Curley. They were selected because each encountered some level of difficulty with the censorship establishment. Hence, each illustrates some facet of the inner workings of the various censorship agencies." [Communication Abstracts]

Watson, Chris
"New Zealand film censorship." In: Contemporary New Zealand cinema : from new wave to blockbuster / editors, Ian Conrich & Stuart Murray. London : I. B. Tauris, c2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1993.5.N43 C66 2008

Weinberger, Stephen
"Joe Breen, The Ayatollah Khomeni, and Film Censorship." Quarterly Review of Film and Video, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 206-215, May 2009
UC users only

Weinberger, Stephen.
"Joe Breen's Oscar." Film History, 2005, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p380-391, 12p
UC users only

Wertheimer, John
"Mutual Film Reviewed: The Movies, Censorship, and Free Speech in Progressive America." The American Journal of Legal History, Vol. 37, No. 2. (Apr., 1993), pp. 158-189.
UC users only
"In 1915, the US Supreme Court announced its decision in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio (236 US 230), upholding Ohio's censorship law. By this decision the movies went without 1st Amendment protection until 1952, when the court overturned Mutual. Local and state censorship of theaters and productions was the accepted norm in the United States and Mutual only continued that tradition. But in that case, the company made a free speech argument (for almost the first time) in opposition to state censorship not out of a dedication to civil liberties but in order to protect its property, its films, from local and state regulations. Mutual hoped (and failed) to use 1st Amendment protections to establish "an unfettered national market place for profitable movies," avoiding costly local and state delays and fees." [America History & Life]

West, Joan M.; West, Dennis
"MPAA Ratings, Black Holes, and My Film: An Interview with Kirby Dick." Cineaste v. 32 no. 1 (Winter 2006) p. 14-19
UC users only
"An interview with filmmaker Kirby Dick on the subject of the Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA) rating system. Topics discussed include Dick's belief that the MPAA rating system is currently one of the greatest sources of concern for all U.S. filmmakers; the problems an NC-17 rating causes; the reasons why the rating system has lasted so long; the difficulties Dick encountered in making his documentary about the system, This Film Is Not Yet Rated; the secrecy surrounding the identities of the Rating Board members; Dick's belief that the Rating Board decisions tend to be anti-gay and anti-lesbian; and his preference for a fairly simple, straightforward, complete description of what is in a film rather than a rating system." [Art Index]

Willcox, Temple
"Soviet films, censorship and the British government: A matter of the public interest." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Volume 10, Issue 3 1990 , pages 275 - 292
UC users only

Williams, Linda Ruth
"No Sex Please We're American." Sight and Sound, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 18-20, Jan 2004
UC users only

Wirt, Frederick M.
" To See or Not to See: The Case against Censorship." Film Quarterly Vol. 13, No. 1 (Autumn, 1959), pp. 26-31
UC users only

Wistrich, Enid.
"I don't mind the sex, it's the violence" : film censorship explored / [by] Enid Wistrich London : Boyars : Distributed by Calder and Boyars, 1978
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1994.A5 .G86

Wittern-Keller, Laura
Freedom of the screen : legal challenges to state film censorship, 1915-1981 / Laura Wittern-Keller. Lexington, Ky. : University Press of Kentucky, c2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.62 .W58 2008
Contents via Google books

Wittern-Keller, Laura
The Miracle case : film censorship and the Supreme Court / Laura Wittern-Keller and Raymond J. Haber Lawrence, Kan. : University Press of Kansas, c2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks KF4300 .W58 2008

Zhang, Rui.
The cinema of Feng Xiaogang : commercialization and censorship in Chinese cinema after 1989 / Rui Zh Aberdeen, Hong Kong : Hong Kong university press, 2008.
East Asian PN1998.3.F456 Z53 2008 AVAILABLE
Pacific Film Archive PN1998.3.F456 Z53 2008

Mae West

Apperson, Virginia.
"Mae West in Retrospect." In: Presence of the feminine in film / By Virginia Apperson and John Beebe. Newcastle : Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.W6 A67 2008

Bak, John S.
"'May I Have a Drag...?' Mae West, Tennessee Williams, and the Politics a Gay Identity." Journal of American Drama and Theatre, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 5-32, Fall 2006
UC users only

Camp : queer aesthetics and the performing subject : a reader
Edited by Fabio Cleto. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University of Michigan Press, c1999.
Main Stack HQ76.25.C33 1999
Contents via Google books

Capote, Truman
"Mae West." In: Portraits and observations : the essays of Truman Capote. New York : Random House, c2007.
Graduate Services Modern Authors Collection XMAC.C246.P67
Main (Gardner) Stacks PS3505.A59 Z473 2007

Clericuzio, Alessandro.
"Theater, Sex, And Censorship: The Case of Mae West." European Contributions to American Studies, Apr2004, Vol. 53, p323-331, 9p

Curry, Ramona.
"Goin' to town and beyond : Mae West, film censorship and the comedy of unmarriage." In: Classical Hollywood comedy New York : Routledge, 1995.
MAIN: PN1995.9.C55 C56 1995

Curry, Ramona.
"Mae West as Censored Commodity: The Case of Klondike Annie." Cinema Journal, Fall91, Vol. 31 Issue 1, p57-84, 28p
UC users only

Curry, Ramona.
Too much of a good thing : Mae West as cultural icon Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c1996.
MAIN: PN2287.W4566 C87 1996
MOFF: PN2287.W4566 C87 1996

Failler, Angela
"Excitable Speech: Judith Butler, Mae West, and Sexual Innuendo." In: Butler matters : Judith Butler's impact on feminist and queer studies / edited by Margaret Sonser Breen, Warren J. Blumenfeld. Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, c2005.
MAIN: HQ1190 .B8835 2005
Table of contents: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0415/2004003235.html

Flinn, Caryl
"The Deaths of Camp" Camera Obscura; May95 Issue 35, p52-84, 33p
UC users only
"The article provides a discussion on the death of camp in gay culture. It describes the decline of camp in the presence of the spread of AIDS and the growth in queer culture. The article focuses on camp related to its practice in gay male subculture. It discusses the use of camp after World War II wherein gay male subculture experienced a loss of control over higher forms of art. The article also provides an overview of camp in pop culture including the history of drag shows and the performances of Mae West." [Ebsco]

Hamilton, Marybeth.
"'Goodness had nothing to do with it: Censoring May West." In: Movie censorship and American culture
Edited by Francis G. Couvares. Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press, c1996.
Main Stack PN1995.62.M68 1996
Moffitt PN1995.62.M68 1996
Partial contents via Google books

Hamilton, Marybeth.
"'A little bit spicy, but not too raw': Mae West, pornography and popular culture." In: Sex exposed : sexuality and the pornography debate / edited by Lynne Segal and Mary McIntosh. London : Virago Press, 1992.
Main Stack HQ471.S4 1992
Moffitt HQ471.S4 1992

Hamilton, Marybeth.
"When I'm bad, I'm better" : Mae West, sex, and American popular entertainment New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1993.
MAIN: PN2287.W4566 H36 1993
MOFF: PN2287.W4566 H36 1993

Hammill, Faye.
""A plumber's idea of Cleopatra" : Mae West as author." In: Women, celebrity, and literary culture between the wars / Faye Hammill. Austin : University of Texas Press, 2007.
Main Stack PS152.H36 2007

Haskell, Molly.
"Goodness has nothing to do with it: Mae West." In: Holding my own in no man's land : women and men, film and feminists / Molly Haskell. New York : Oxford University Press, 1997
Main Stack PN1995.9.W6.H32 1997
Moffitt PN1995.9.W6.H32 1997

Hutchings, Williams
"Mae West as Playwright: Broadway's Sex Scandal of 1926-27." Text & Presentation: The Journal of the Comparative Drama Conference, vol. 21, pp. 101-15, Apr 2000

Ivanov, Andrea J.
"Mae West Was Not a Man: Sexual Parody and Genre in the Plays and Films of Mae West." In: Look who's laughing : gender and comedy / edited by Gail Finney. Langhorne, Pa. : Gordon and Breach, c1994.
Main Stack PN1922.L66 1994

Leff, Leonard J.
"Welcome, Mae West!" In: The dame in the kimono : hollywood, censorship, and the production code / Leonard J. Leff and Jerold L. Simmons. Lexington : University Press of Kentucky, c2001.
MAIN: PN1995.62 .L4 2001
PFA : PN1995.62 L44 2001

Leider, Emily Wortis.
Becoming Mae West New York : Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1997.
MAIN: PN2287.W4566 L44 1997
PFA : PN2287.W4566 L44 1997
Contents via Google books

Louvish, Simon.
Mae West : it ain't no sin New York : St. Martin's Press/Thomas Dunne Books, 2006.
MAIN: PN2287.W4566 L68 2006

McCorkle, Susannah.
"The Immortality of Mae West." American Heritage 2001 52(6): 48-57 10p
UC users only

McCourt, James
"Mae West" Yale Review; Jul99, Vol. 87 Issue 3, p45, 11p
Profiles actress Mae West. Mae's understanding of the difference between male and female narcissism; Mae as a one-woman National Recovery Administration; Realization of Mae's own personal kinetic potential; Mae's aim to neutralize aggression.

Murray, Matthew
"Mae West and the Limits of Radio Censorship in the 1930s." Colby Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 261-72, Dec 2000

Poole, Ralph J.
"Indecent Ingenues: David Belasco's And Mae West's Delegitimization and Refashioning of American Melodrama." Amerikastudien 2003 48(4): 513-536 24p.

Pullen, Kirsten.
"Prostitution, Performance, and Mae West: Speaking from the Whore." Position." In: Actresses and whores : on stage and in society / Kirsten Pullen. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Main (Gardner) Stacks; PFA PN1590.W64 P85 2005

Robertson, Pamela.
Guilty pleasures : feminist camp from Mae West to Madonna Durham : Duke University Press, 1996.
MAIN: PN1995.9.W6 R52 1996
MOFF: PN1995.9.W6 R52 1996
Contents via Google books

Robertson, Pamela.
"'The Kinda Comedy That Imitates Me': Mae West's Identification with the Feminist Camp." Cinema Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Winter, 1993), pp. 57-72
UC users only

Robertson, Pamela.
"'The Kinda Comedy That Imitates Me': Mae West's Identification with the Feminist Camp." In: Camp grounds : style and homosexuality / edited by David Bergman. Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, c1993.
Main Stack PN56.H57.C36 1993
Moffitt PN56.H57.C36 1993

Rubin, Martin.
"Movies and the New Deal Entertainment: She Done Him Wrong and the Risen Woman." In: American cinema of the 1930s : themes and variations / edited by Ina Rae Hark. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c2007.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.A85735 2007

San Miguel Groner, Marlene.
"Mae West." In: Fools and jesters in literature, art, and history : a bio-bibliographical sourcebook Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1998.
MAIN Ref: DREF: PN1583 .F66 1998

Shafer, Yvonne.
"The Successful Career of Mae West on the American Stage." Journal of American Drama & Theatre, 2000 Fall, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p1-13, 13p

Schlissel, Lillian.
"Mae West & the 'queer plays'." Women's History Review, 2002, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p 71-87, 17p;
UC users only

Schuyler, Michael T.
"Camp for Camp's Sake: Absolutely Fabulous, Self-Consciousness, and the Mae West Debate." Journal of Film & Video, Winter2004, Vol. 56 Issue 4, p3-20, 18p
UC users only

Scott, Derek B.
"Erotic representation from Monteverdi to Mae West." In: From the erotic to the demonic : on critical musicology / Derek B. Scott. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003
Music ML3795.S28 2003

Sochen, June
From Mae to Madonna : women entertainers in twentieth-century America Lexington, KY : University Press of Kentucky, c1999.
MAIN: PN2285 .S554 1999
MOFF: PN2285 .S554 1999

Sochen, June
Mae West : she who laughs, lasts Arlington Heights, Ill. : H. Davidson, Inc., c1992.
MOFF: PN2287.W4566 S65 1992

Tremper, Ellen.
"Double-peroxide, moving parts, and mobile mouths: movies of the 1930s." In: I'm no angel : the blonde in fiction and film Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press, 2006.
MAIN: PR868.B56 T74 2006
PFA : PR868.B56 T74 2006

Watts, Jill.
Mae West : an icon in black and white Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001.
MAIN: PN2287.W4566 W39 2001

West, Mae.
Goodness had nothing to do with it! New York : Manor Books, 1976, c1970.
MOFF: PN2287.W4566 A3

Williams, Linda
"What Does Mae West Have That All the Men Want? What Does Mae West Have That All the Men Want?" Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Autumn, 1975), pp. 118-121
UC users only

Wojcik, Pamela Robertson.
"Mae West's Maids: Race, 'Authenticity,' and the Discourse of Camp." In: Hop on pop : the politics and pleasures of popular culture / edited by Henry Jenkins, Tara McPherson & Jane Shattuc. Durham, N.C. : Duke University Press, 2002.
MAIN: E169.1 .H77 2002
MOFF: E169.1 .H77 2002




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