Social & Cultural Factors in Environmental Design
Social & Cultural Factors in Environmental Design is a strategic bibliographic guide for UC Berkeley students (in particular, students in Architecture 110/210 and Landscape Architecture 140) researching social, cultural, and psychological factors in environmental design. The guide emphasizes resources pertaining to the San Francisco Bay Area and California. For a broader view of the U.S., see American Cultural Landscapes. For additional assistance please consult the Environmental Design Library reference staff, 210 Wurster Hall.
UC Berkeley faculty, registered students, and staff who are off campus may use items marked
UCB Only or UC Only by using The Library's
off-campus access services.
Compiled by Deborah Sommer and Elizabeth D. Byrne.
Content reviewed: June 2010
Here is a selection of specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias for factual background information on your topic.
- Encyclopedia of community: from the village to the virtual world,
Karen Christensen & David Levinson, general eds. 4 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications,
2003. Comprised of well-written signed articles on diverse topics, including
community gardening, housing, immigrant communities, and recreation.
- EnvDesign HM756 E53 2003 Reference
Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology, David Levinson, Melvyn
Ember, eds. NY: Henry and Holt, 1996.
- Anthro GN307 E52 1996 v.1-4 Indexes and Encyclopedias
- Encyclopedia of gardens: history and design, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Candice A. Shoemaker, ed. 3 vols. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001. Excellent
source for landscape design history. Substantive signed articles are illustrated; each includes a brief bibliography.
- EnvDesign SB465 E63 2001 Reference Desk
Encyclopedia of multiculturalism, Susan
Auerbach, ed. NY: Marshall Cavendish, 1994.
- Main E184 A1 E58 1994 v.1-6, Library Use Only
Encyclopedia of vernacular architecture of the world, Paul Oliver, ed. NY: Cambridge Univ. Pr.,
1997. 3 vol. Excellent bibliographies.
- EnvDesign NA208 E53 1997 Reference
encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (IESBS) via ScienceDirect - UCB Only Updated 2004. Contains more than 3,800 articles spread over 99 subject areas. Links from references to full-text articles and browsable indexes makes this work a key research tool.
- Online ed.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/referenceworks/0080430767
- Print ed.: Anthro, Doe Ref H41 I58 2001 v.1-26.
Oxford art online - UCB Only Includes the online version of the Grove Dictionary of Art (Grove Art Online), as well as other art reference sources. Contains
articles on every aspect of the visual arts including architecture and landscape architecture. Features a search for images only.
Grove dictionary of art: EnvDesign, Doe Ref N31 D5 1996 Reference v.1-34
Oxford reference online - Art and architecture - UCB Only Access to more than 10 architecture, art, and landscape architecture dictionaries and encyclopedias published by Oxford University Press, for example, A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture and The Oxford Companion to the Garden. Search sources collectively or search within an individual title.
Oxford reference online - Politics and social sciences - UCB Only Access to more than 20 Oxford University encyclopedias and dictionaries in the social sciences, for example, A Dictionary of Psychology, Dictionary of the Social Sciences, and The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States. Search sources collectively or search within an individual title.
Specialized bibliographies can help you find publications on your topic. Also look for bibliographies in books as well as in journal and encyclopedia articles.
Architecture, environmental design,
and the human psyche: recent journal articles. Dale E. Casper.
Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, 
EnvDesign NA200 A12A7 no.1759 Index
Environmental sociology: a bibliography
of conceptual, methodological, and theoretical readings, by Riley
E. Dunlap. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, .
EnvDesign NA200 A12 A7 no.1001 Index
Psychological aspects of housing
and the built-environment: a bibliography, by Marjorie Inman.
Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, 
EnvDesign NA200 A12 A7 no.1902 Index
Psychological aspects of architecture:
a bibliography, by Mary Vance. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies,
EnvDesign NA200 A12 A7 no.939 Index
Resources in environment-behavior
studies, Gary T. Moore and the faculty and students
of the Ph. D. Program, comps. Milwaukee: Dept. of Architecture, School of
Architecture and Urban Planning, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1991.
EnvDesign NA2542.4 A12 R43 1991
Social factors and environmental
design: reciprocal relations of society and man-made environment, by Thomas
H. Jenkins. Monticello, IL: Council of Planning Librarians, 1978
EnvDesign Microfiche 7179 no.1511
Here is a selected list of environmental design research guides to UC Berkeley library and web resources. See also Environmental Design Library Research Guides for a complete list of subject guides and other useful research tools.
- Art information: research methods and resources, by
Lois Jones. 3rd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1990. Although
slightly dated, offers excellent strategies, including for architectural
- EnvDesign N85 J64 1990 Reference
Topical research guides. A selection of UC Berkeley Library bibliographic research guides.
Here is a brief selection of books and articles that talk about application of social science research methodologies to design.
Behavioral scientists enter design, by William Reese. IN:
breakthrough ideas: the collaboration of anthropologists and designers
in the product development industry, Susan Squires and Bryan
Byrne, eds. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. Online table of contents.
- Anthro TS183 C73 2002
Ethnographic field methods and their relation to design,
by Jeanette Blomberg, et. al. IN: Participatory design: principles and
practices, Douglas Schuler, Aki Namioka, eds. Hillsdale, NJ:
L. Erlbaum Associates, 1993, pp. 123-55.
- Main QA76.9 S88 P38 1993
- Public places and private spaces: the psychology of work, play,
and living environments, by Albert Mehrabian. NY: Basic Books, 1976.
- EnvDesign, Educ/Psych, Moff BF353 M41
The Social life of small urban spaces, by William H. Whyte.
NY: Project for Public Spaces, 2001, c1980.
- EnvDesign HT153 W49 2001
Some place like home: using design psychology to create
ideal places, by Toby Israel. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003.
EnvDesign NA2542.4 I77 2003
See the guide Finding Local Information for selected links to California and San Francisco Bay Area public libraries.
UC Berkeley campus libraries. Here is a selection of campus libraries whose collections support your research.
Interpreting the Built Environment
Analyzing activity areas, an ethnoarchaeological study
of the use of space, by Susan Kent. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico
Anthro CC79 E85 K46 1984
Architecture as space, how to look at architecture, by
Bruno Zevi; ed. by Joseph A. Barry. Rev. ed. NY: Horizon Pr.,  Includes concepts of space through many eras, and different interpretations
of architecture--political, religious, scientific, etc.
EnvDesign NA2500 Z452 1974
Architecture everywhere: investigating the built environment
of your community, by Joseph A.Weber. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Pr. 2000.
EnvDesign NA705 W43 2000
Architecture, form, space & order, by Francis
D.K. Ching. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Online table of contents.
EnvDesign NA2760 C46 2007
Building up the mental encyclopedia, IN: A Visual approach to park design, by Albert J. Rutledge. NY: Garland STPM Pr., 1981, pp.133-150.
- EnvDesign SB481 R87
Buildings and society, essays on the social development
of the built environment, Anthony D. King, ed. Boston:
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.
EnvDesign NA2543 S6 B76
Cities & people, a social and architectural history, by Mark
Girouard. New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr., 1985.
EnvDesign HT111 G571 1988
Close-up, how to read the American city, Grady Clay.
Phoenix, ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1980.
EnvDesign HT153 C585 1980
Cross-cultural studies and urban form, by Amos Rapoport.
College Park, MD: Urban Studies Program, Univ. of Maryland, 
Monograph series, no. 10. See especially p. 15+, "How might one go about
doing cross-cultural research?" Excellent bibliography.
Environ Dsgn GN345.7 R37 1993
Learning from things: method and theory of material culture
studies, W. David Kingery, ed. Washington, DC: Smithsonian
Institution Pr., 1996.
- Anthro GN406 L43 1996
The Meaning of the built environment, a nonverbal communication
approach, by Amos Rapoport. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Pr., 1990.
- EnvDesign BF353 R36 1990
Meaningful architecture: social interpretations of buildings, Martin Locock, ed. Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1994. Worldwide archaeology series, 9.
- EnvDesign, Anthro NA2543 S6 M43 1994
Public places, exploring their history, by Gerald A.
Danzer. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Pr., published in cooperation with
the American Association for State and Local History, 1997. Includes streets and open spaces.
- EnvDesign E180 D36 1997
Right before your eyes, penetrating the urban environment, by Grady
Clay. Chicago, IL: Planners
- EnvDesign HT153 C58571 1987
Understanding buildings, a multidisciplinary approach, by Esmond
Reid. London: Construction Pr., 1984.
- EnvDesign TH145 R42 1984b
Understanding the use of space: an ethnoarchaeological
approach, by Susan Kent, IN: Method and Theory for Activity Area
Research: An Ethnoarchaeological Approach, Susan Kent, ed. NY: Columbia Univ. Pr., 1987.
- Anthro GF95 M481 1987
Handbook of interview research, context & methods,
Jaber F. Gubrium, James A. Holstein, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications,
- EnvDesign, EdPsych, Doe Stacks, Anthro Ref
H61.28 H36 2002
Interviews: an introduction to qualitative research interviewing,
by Steinar Kvale. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996.
EnvDesign HM48.9 K9 1996
Learning from strangers: the art and method of qualitative
interview studies, by Robert S. Weiss. NY: Free Pr., 1995.
EnvDesign HN29 W42 1995
The Oral history manual, by Barbara W. Sommer, Mary Kay
Quinlan. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Pr., 2002.
- Anthro, Moff D16.14 S69 2002 Reference
Qualitative interviewing: the art of hearing data,
by Herbert J. Rubin and Irene S. Rubin. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pubications,
EnvDesign, Anthro, Bus & Econ H62 R737 2005
Using Images & Maps for Research
- Remember: Images may be protected by copyright
Image-based research: a sourcebook for qualitative researchers,
Jon Prosser, ed. Bristol, PA: Falmer Pr., 1998.
- EnvDesign, Anth GN347 I43 1998
Mapping it out: expository cartography for the humanities
and social sciences, by Mark Monmonier. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr.,
- EnvDesign, Earth Sci, Main GA108.7 M66 1993
- Researching the visual: images, objects, contexts and
interactions in social and cultural inquiry, by Michael Emmison. London:
- EnvDesign, Main HM500 E56 2000
anthropology: photography as a research method, by John Collier, Jr.,
and Malcolm Collier. Rev. and expanded ed. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico
- Online ed.: http://www.netlibrary.com/summary.asp?id=22737
- Print ed.: EnvDesign, Anthro, Moff GN347 C64 1986
- Visual methodologies: an introduction to the interpretation
of visual materials, by Gillian Rose. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.
- EnvDesign, Main P93.5 R67 2001; Anthro P93.5 R67 2007
- Visual methods in social research, by Marcus Banks. London:
- EnvDesign, Anthro, Main HM500 B35 2001
- Built environment evaluation: conceptual basis, benefits and uses, by Wolfgang F.E. Preiser. IN: Directions in person-environment research and practice, Jack L. Nasar and Wolfgang F.E. Preiser, eds. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999, pp.73-98.
- EnvDesign NA2542.4 D57 1999
- Communities by design: a post-occupancy evaluation of
construction, design, community life and resident
experiences at four affordable housing developments, by Gloria Bruce. Professional report (Master of City Planning) Berkeley: Univ. Of California, Berkeley, 2006. Includes case studies.
- EnvDesign NA25.42 2006 B783
- Easter Hill Village: some social implications of design, by Clare
C. Cooper. NY: Free Pr., 
- EnvDesign HD7304 R47 C661
- Inquiry by design: environment/behavior/neuroscience in architecture, interiors, landscape, and planning, by John Zeisel. NY : W.W. Norton & Company, c2006.
- EnvDesign, Ed/Psych BF353 Z44 2006
- People places: design guidelines for urban open space, Clare Cooper Marcus and Carolyn Francis, eds. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998. See Chapter 8.
- EnvDesign, Ed/Psych BF353 Z44 2006
- Post-occupancy evaluation, by Wolfgang F.E. Preiser, Harvey Z.
Rabinowitz, Edward T. White. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988. Includes case studies.
- EnvDesign NA2750 P691 1988
- Post-occupancy evaluation and the corporate architect, by Edward T.
White. Tucson, AZ: Architectural Media Ltd., 1991.
- EnvDesign NA2750 W465 1991
- A User-oriented evaluation of San Francisco's public housing for
the elderly, by Galen Cranz, David Christensen, with Sam Dyer. [San Francisco?], 1977.
EnvDesign HD7287.9 C7 1977
- A Visual approach to park design, by Albert J. Rutledge.
NY: Garland STPM Pr., 1981.
- EnvDesign SB481 R87
Consult the Guide
to library catalogs for help choosing which UC library catalogs to use, and how to use them.
If we don't own what you need, try the Interlibrary
borrowing service - UCB Only.
Melvyl catalog is your best first place to look for books on your topic. Melvyl provides excellent coverage of the UC Berkeley libraries, as well as the other nine UC campuses and selected other libraries, and supports excellent keyword searching.
Use the Advanced
Search in the library catalogs, which
allows you to combine keywords, authors, subject headings
and more, and to limit by date, language, etc.
To locate materials in libraries
not listed in the Melvyl catalog, use WorldCat - UC Only via OCLC/FirstSearch.
Subject headings are helpful for researching
topics on the social and cultural aspects of environmental design:
Architecture and society
Cities and towns
City and town life
Urban landscape architecture
Narrow your searches
with the addition of place names and/or some useful stock phrases, e.g., Architecture--Cross-cultural studies). Here is a selection of subject subheadings:
Design and construction
Designs and plans
Social life and customs
Finding books on special topics
Use journal and newspaper indexes and databases to discover articles on your topic. Some online databases include the full text of the articles you discover or the icon which may lead you to the full text elsewhere. In many cases, however, you will need to locate the print journal in the Library's collections; search the Library's catalogs by the journal title in order to find the shelving location and call number for the journal.
If we don't own what you need, try the Interlibrary
borrowing service - UCB Only.
Find an article by citation
e-Links--articles provides a way to move
from an article citation to the digital version of the item, to check if the item is available in print on your campus, or to request via the Request feature, items not available on your campus.
Journal article indexes. The study of social and cultural factors in environmental design is highly multidisciplinary. See the following web guides
for recommended indexes by discipline.
Social and cultural aspects. The following periodical indexes are especially helpful in identifying articles on the social and cultural aspects of environmental design.
- Art index retrospective
& Art full text via WilsonWeb
- UC Only Indexes journal articles in
art, design, and architecture, landscape, urban design, and planning.
Online ed.: Art Index Retrospective:
1929-1984; Art Full Text: 1984--
Print ed.: 1929-1994, EnvDesign N18 A72 Index
Avery index to architectural periodicals via CSA UC Only The most comprehensive periodical article
index for architecture and all aspects of environmental design. Indexes
scholarly and professional journals from all over the world
in the subjects of architecture, landscape architecture and urban design.
Early volumes have only minimal coverage of the U.S. West Coast.
Online access: 1890--
1890-1995; EnvDesign fNA8 C64 1973 Index
JSTOR - UCB Only A full-text archive of
interdisciplinary scholarly journal literature, including sociology; African, African-American,
Asian, Latin American, Middle East, and Slavic studies; and political science. Coverage
begins with the first issue of each journal; the last few years of publication are frequently unavailable.
- Coverage: Varies.
- PsycInfo via CSA UC Only Indexes over 1300 journals, conference proceedings, books, reports, and dissertations in psychology, and more.
- Readers' guide to periodical literature - UC Only
[cumulated] NY [etc.] Indexes popular American magazines.
- Print ed.: 1900-- ,
Doe Refe AJ3 R4;
Moff AI3 R4 Index
Sociological abstracts via CSA - UCB Only Indexes journal articles, book chapters, & reviews from over 1,900
journals, books, book chapters, and reviews in the social sciences.
source for public policy topics.
- Online ed.: 1963--
- Print ed.: 1952-- ; Main HM15.5 S6
Urban studies & planning - UCB Only. Provides indexing to and full text of 12 journals
published by SAGE Publications and participating societies, some journals going back 37 years.
- Coverage: Varies.
Local newspapers are vital sources of information on their communities. Increasingly, recent issues are available full text through the Web or other databases. Several databases have historical indexes and/or full text for newspapers. From The Library's home page, see Electronic Resources→News
Databases, for a comprehensive list of online news databases available to UC Berkeley students.
- Access world news via
UCB Only Full-text database of articles from
national, and international newspapers and newswires, including many California papers such
as Contra Costa Times (1995-current), Fresno Bee (1986-current), Sacramento Bee (1984-current),
San Francisco Chronicle (1985-current), and San Jose Mercury News (1985-current).
newswatch via ProQuest - UC Only
of approximately 100 newspapers and other periodicals published by ethnic
and minority presses in the U.S. Includes articles published in African-American,
Hispanic, Latino, Chicano, Native American, Asian, Jewish, Arab, and European/Eastern
General and business news and information from more than 9,000 sources, including newswires.
- Coverage: Varies
Lexis-Nexis academic - UCB Only
Includes indexing to journals and newspapers and provides full text.
- Coverage: Varies.
and periodical indexes for California List of indexes of California newpapers and periodicals available
in the Bancroft Library.
news archives on the web Provides links to web versions of dozens of U.S. newspapers
and their full-text, online back files.
Note that archives are often excellent sources of images.
See the Using Images for Research section of this guide, for information on doing
- Aerial photographs:
Earth Sciences & Map Library (EART) has an excellent collection of aerial photos of
See the searchable
Catalog of aerial photography
(UC Berkeley, Library) for details. The site also includes links to other campus aerial photo
and buildings database (Univ. of Washington Libraries).
An international image database of cities and buildings; search the database
by country, city, style, title, architect, date of construction, as well
as other fields.
design videotapes in the Media Resources Center A guide to
environmental design videos at UC Berkeley. You can also search OskiCat
and Melvyl by subject or keyword and limit format to videos, films, movies.
sources for the built environment (UC Berkeley Library) A list of print and electronic sources
with plans, illustrations and photos of architecture, landscape architecture
and urban design.
Plat maps, also called fire insurance maps,
show a variety of details, including actual lot boundaries, special uses,
building materials and building footprints. For a bibliography on using fire insurance maps in research, see Fire insurance plans.
- Digital Sanborn maps, 1867-1970 (UMI) - UCB Only Site provides digital access to more than 660,000 large-scale maps of more
than 12,000 American towns and cities. The maps "are large-scale plans
containing...information such as the outline of each building, the size,
shape and construction materials, heights, and function of structures,
location of windows and doors. The maps also give street names, street
and sidewalk widths, property boundaries, building use, and house and block
insurance maps (UC Berkeley, Library) Links to description
of and indexes to fire insurance maps.
- San Francisco Maps, courtesy of San Francisco Genealogy. Guide and links to historic, street and other maps.
- Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, San Francisco, California, 1899/1900, courtesy of San Francisco Genealogy. The black and white maps presented here are from six volumes that covered San Francisco in 1899 and 1900. To locate a specific location, consult the various indexes to locate the correct Map Sheet. Then select the appropriate link.
- Insurance maps of Berkeley, California,
Sanborn Map Company. NY: The Co., 1911. Includes Albany and parts of Emeryville and Oakland.
- EnvDesign fffG1529 B6 S3Rare v.2 only, 1911 corrected to 1933
Francisco Public Library digitized images Searchable by subject
- UC Image service (California Digital Library)
Provides 330,000 high resolution, zoom-able digital images in about a dozen image collections, among them the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection and the SPIRO online image database (UC Berkeley, Architecture Visual Resources Center).
Excellent sources of primary research materials
Archival and other original materials are often difficult to locate, so check in directories of archives and special collections to locate manuscripts, drawings and other unpublished materials. See
Archival Collections & Primary Source Databases for additional archival sources.
Using archival materials
Finding archival materials
Selected archival collections in California
records in the San Francisco Bay Area: a guide to research,
California Cooperative Preservation of Architectural Records, Waverly B.
Lowell, project director. NY: Garland, 1988.
- EnvDesign NA2125 C22 S2631 1988 Reference
archives (Carnegie Mellon Univ. Library) Links to numerous architectural archives in North America.
- Municipal archives: Municipal archives can be a fabulous source of primary research material.
Many cities, counties, etc., maintain archives of historical municipal records, ranging
from meeting and office records to maps, vital records, photographs, plans, parks and recreation planning, and much more. These archives are
managed in diverse ways: as a separate department, as a function within an individual department, as part of the
public library, etc. Search H-Urban discussion logs for "municipal archives" for
a sampling of the type and quality of municipal archives available.
Online Archive of
California (Calif. Digital Library) Over 120,000 images; 50,000 pages
of documents, letters, and oral histories; and, 8,000 guides to archival
collections. Includes finding aids for architectural manuscripts and drawings
in the UCB Bancroft Library, Environmental Design Archives, and many other
California collections. Can search all collections at once.
- The Bancroft
Library (UC Berkeley)
- California State Archives 1020 O Street, Sacramento http://www.sos.ca.gov/archives/archives.htm
- California State Library, California History Section 900 N Street, Room 200, Sacramento http://www.library.ca.gov/calhist/index.html
State Library, Sutro Library 480 Winston Drive, San Francisco http://www.library.ca.gov/collections/sutro.html
- Environmental Design Archives (UC Berkeley) By appointment only, 230 Wurster Hall http://www.ced.berkeley.edu/cedarchives/
- National Archives, Pacific Region (San Francisco) 1000 Commodore Drive, San Bruno, CA http://www.archives.gov/locations/index.html
- San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park Historic Documents Department, Fort Mason Center Building E, San Francisco http://www.nps.gov/safr/index.htm
- Water Resources
Center Archives (WRCA) UC Riverside and CSU San Bernardino.
Strong emphasis on California water resources. Search through Melvyl or NextGen Melvyl. http://library.ucr.edu/wrca/
Finding historical societies
- State historical agencies (American Association for State and Local History) Directory of Web links to state historical agencies and societies, many of which provide links to local historical societies.
cultural directory (California State Historical
Society) Includes links to California historical agencies.
Selected local historical societies
Many community libraries have rich local history collections.
Finding Statistics & Data
Here's a small selection of statistical resources. For a more comprehensive list, including some full text, see Statistics & data for city planning: United States (American focus with a California emphasis).
data center (Association of Bay Area Governments) Great
source of San Francisco Bay Area economic and demographic statistics. Here
is a selection of the categories available:
---Population and demographics
---Land use and maps
---Real estate and housing.
factfinder (U.S. Census Bureau)Users can create a variety of tables, reports, or maps with information on their
county profiles (Calif. Dept. of Finance) Compilation of
selected economic, social, and demographic data for California and its
- Online access: http://www.dof.ca.gov/html/fs_data/profiles/pf_home.htm
- Print ed.: 1996-- ; Main Stack HA262 C68; latest in Doe Refe
demographics (Calif. Dept. of Finance, Demographic Research
Unit) Includes California demographic data, selected full-text
reports and papers, catalog of publications, etc.
DataPlace Easy-to-use source of U.S. housing and demographic data from the census tract to the national level.
Currently contains data from the 1990 and 2000 Censuses, as well as home mortgage, Section 8, and housing needs data.
Create your own maps. Includes nice directory of other online
State of the cities data systems (HUD User) For individual metropolitan areas, central cities, and suburbs, presents demographic and economic data from the 1970-2000 U.S. censuses (when available), and much more.