Design Methods and Design Research: A Quick Guide to Resources
Sometimes called “rational design,” or “design processes,” design methods examines the scientific or logical, rather than aesthetic or intuitive approaches to designing. This guide is an overview of English-language general and practical information on architectural design methods and design research, focusing on materials in the Environmental Design Library, UCB.
Additional materials may be found by searching in the OskiCat and Melvyl catalogs. See also our other research guides for related material: Building Science and Architecture Reference Sources. For additional assistance, consult the Environmental Design Library reference staff, 210 Wurster Hall.
UC Berkeley registered students, faculty and staff who are off campus may use items marked UCB Only or UC Only by using the Library’s proxy service.
Content reviewed: January 2007. Compiled by Elizabeth D. Byrne, Environmental Design Library
SUBJECT HEADINGS & KEYWORDS
Use these terms in OskiCat or Melvyl to locate additional books, and in indexes to periodicals to locate journal articles.
creative ability in technology
science of design
DESIGN METHODS: A Selection of General Sources
= highly recommended
- Analysing design activity / ed. by Nigel Cross, Henri Christiaans, Kees Dorst. Chichester; New York: Wiley, 1996.
- Environmental Design TS171.A53 1996
- The cognitive artifacts of designing / Willemien Visser. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2006.
- Table of contents
- Environmental Design TA166.V575 2006
- Conference on Design Methods; papers. eds: J. Christopher Jones [and] D. G. Thornley. Oxford, New York, Macmillan, 1963. [includes articles by Joseph Esherick and Christopher Alexander]
- Environmental Design, Engineering
- “Descriptive Models of Design,” ed. By O. Akin, special issue of Design Studies Online UC Only, v. 18, no. 4, 1997.
Environmental Design NK1160.D48 v.18, 1997
- “Design as a Discipline,” by Nigel Cross, paper presented at ‘The Inter-disciplinary Design Quandary’ Conference, 13th February 2002, De Montfort University.
- The design experience: the role of design and designers in the twenty-first century / Mike Press and Rachel Cooper. Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003.
- Environmental Design TS171.P72 2003
- The design method; ed. by Sydney A. Gregory in behalf of Design and Innovation Group, University of Aston in Birmingham. London, Butterworths; New York, Plenum Press, 1966.
- Environmental Design TA174.G7
- Design methodology and relationships with science: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Design Methodology and Relationships With Science, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, September 29-October 2,1992] / ed. by M.J. de Vries, N. Cross and D.P. Grant..Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic: Pub. in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division, 1993. NATO ASI series. Series D, Behavioural and social sciences no. 71.
- Design methods / John Chris Jones. 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.
- Environmental Design TA174.J66 1992
- Design methods in architecture; ed. by Geoffrey Broadbent and Anthony Ward. London, Lund Humphries, 1969. Design Methods in Architecture Symposium (1967: Portsmouth School
of Architecture) Paper (Architectural Association, Great Britain) no. 4.
- Environmental Design NA25.A7.P2 no.4
- Design methods: seeds of human futures / J. Christopher Jones. London, New York, Wiley-Interscience, 1970.
- Environmental Design TA153.J6
- Design performance / Francis J. O'Donnell and Alex H.B. Duffy. London: Springer Science, 2005.
- Environmental Design TS171.O36 2005
- Design science: introduction to needs, scope and organization of engineering design knowledge / Vladimir Hubka and W. Ernst Eder. Berlin; New York: Springer, 1996.
- Design thinking / Peter G. Rowe. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987.
- Environmental Design NA2750.R681 1987
- The design way: intentional change in an unpredictable world: foundations and fundamentals of design competence / Harold G. Nelson, Erik Stolterman. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 2003.
- Table of contents
- Environmental Design NK1505.N43 2003
- Designerly ways of knowing / Nigel Cross. London: Springer, 2006.
- Environmental Design TS171.C76 2006
- Designing designing / John Chris Jones. London: Architecture Design and Technology Press, 1991.
- Environmental Design TA174.J676 1991
- Developments in design methodology / ed. by Nigel Cross. Chichester; New York: Wiley, 1984.
- Environmental Design NK1525.D48 1984
- Dilemmas in a general theory of planning, by Horst W. J. Rittel and Melvin M. Webber. [Berkeley, Institute of Urban & Regional Development, University of California] 1972. Working paper (University of California, Berkeley. Institute of Urban & Regional Development) no. 194.
- Environmental Design HT393.C2C25.W6 no.194
- Engineering design: a systematic approach / Gerald Pahl, Wolfgang Beitz; translated by Ken Wallace, 2nd revised ed. London; New York: Springer, 1996.
- Essays in design / J. Christopher Jones. Chichester [West Sussex]; New York: Wiley, 1984.
- Environmental Design TA174.J675 1984
- How designers think: the design process demystified / Bryan Lawson. 4th ed. Oxford; Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Architectural, 2006.
- Environmental Design NK1510.L4 2006
- The idea of design / ed. by Victor Margolin and Richard Buchanan. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995. Design issues reader.
- Environmental Design NK1525.I34 1995
- “Investigating Design: A Review of Forty Years of Design Research,“ Nigan Bayazit in Design Issues Online UC Only, v. 20 no. 1:16-29, Winter, 2004.
Environmental Design NK1160.D4754 v. 20, 2004 periodical stacks
- Method in architecture / Tom Heath. Chichester [West Sussex]; New York: Wiley, 1984.
- Environmental Design NA2500.H381 1984
- New thinking in design: conversations on theory and practice / C. Thomas Mitchell. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996.
- Environmental Design NK1520.M58 1996
- Notes on the synthesis of form / Christopher Alexander. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1964.
- Environmental Design NK1505.A4
- Practical studies in systematic design / Vladimir Hubka, M. Myrup Andreasen, W. Ernst Eder; London; Boston: Butterworths, 1988.
- The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action / Donald A. Schon. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
- Environmental Design, Main, Soc Welfare, Moffitt
- The sciences of the artificial / Herbert A. Simon. 3rd ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
- Main Stack
- Environmental Design, Anthro, Main
Q175.S564 1981 (2nd ed.)
- Environmental Design, Educ/Psych, Math
Q175.S564 (1st ed, 1969)
- The semantic turn: a new foundation for design / Klaus Krippendorff. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. [required reading for all designers]
- Environmental Design NK1505.K755 2006
- The universal traveler: a companion for those on problem-solving journeys and a soft-systems guidebook to... Experimental ed. Los Altos, Calif., W. Kaufmann 
- Environmental Design BF441.K551 1973
- The universe of design, Faculty seminar, College of Environment Design, Spring 1964. Horst W. J. Rittel. Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California 
- Environmental Design NK1525.R5
DESIGN RESEARCH: A Selection of General Sources
= highly recommended
- Architectural research / [ed. by] James C. Snyder. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. Environmental design series (Stroudsburg, Pa.) v. 6.
- Environmental Design NA2000.A69 1984
- Architectural research methods / Linda Groat and David Wang. New York: J. Wiley, 2002.
- Table of Contents
- Environmental Design NA2000.G76 2002
- Behavioral research methods in environmental design, ed. by William Michelson. Stroudsburg, Pa., Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross; [New York] distr. by Halsted Press  Community development series, v. 8
- Environmental Design H61.M49651
- Design decision making in architectural practice: a report on a research project supported by the Building Research Establishment, Department of the Environment, examining the roles of information, experience and other influences during the design process / Margaret Mackinder, Heather Marvin. York, [England]: Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, University of York, . Research paper (University of York. Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies) 19.
- Environmental Design NA2750.M32
- Design research: methods and perspectives / Brenda Laurel, editor. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.
- Environmental Design, Engi
- Doing science: design, analysis, and communication of scientific research / Ivan Valiela. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Environmental Design, Bios
- Environmental design research: concepts, methods and values / by Marguerite Villecco and Michael Brill. [Washington: National Endowment for the Arts], 1981.
- Environmental Design NA2542.35.V45 1981
- Environmental design research: how to do it and how to apply it / Robert Wehrli. New York: Wiley, 1986.
- Environmental Design TA170.W441 1986 Reference
- Inquiry by design: environment/behavior/neuroscience in architecture, interiors, landscape, and planning / John Zeisel. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006.
- Environmental Design, Educ/Psych
- “Methods in the making: A perspective on the state of human research in design,” Bruce Hanington, in Design Issues Online UC Only v. 19, no. 4: 9-18.Autumn, 2003
Environmental Design NK1160.D4754 v.19, 2003 periodical stacks
- Research by design: International Conference, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, in co-operation with the EAAE/AEEA, November 1-3, 2000: proceedings. Delft: DUP Science, 2001.
- Environmental Design NA2000.R47 2001 v.A
- Visual research methods in design / Henry Sanoff. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
- Environmental Design NA2750.S25 1991
- Visualizing research: a guide to the research process in art and design / Carole Gray and Julian Malins. Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004.
- Environmental Design, Art/Classics
- Ways to study and research: urban, architectural and technical design / ed. by T.M. de Jong and D.J.M. van der Voordt. Delft: DUP Science, 2002.
- Environmental Design NA2750.W39 2002
Use these periodical indexes and the keywords and subject headings, and/or the authors listed above to search for journal articles. For a broader, more comprehensive listing of architecture periodical indexes, see our guide Architecture Indexes and Abstracts.
Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals via CSA UCB Only | Primary and most comprehensive periodical article index for architecture and all aspects of environmental design. It indexes 2500+ scholarly and professional journals from all over the world in the subjects of architecture, landscape architecture and urban design.
Compendex via EV (Elsevier) UCB Only | Comprehensive interdisciplinary engineering database. Contains 8+ million records and references 5,000+ international engineering sources including journal, conference, and trade publications. Updated weekly.
API Online via Architecture Online Catalogue, RIBA British Architectural Library | Index to books, articles from 300+ periodicals in 20 languages, and records of drawings, photos, and manuscripts in the British Architectural Library catalogued or indexed since the 1980's. Covers 300+ journals from 45 countries.
PapersFirst via FirstSearch/OCLC UCB Only | Indexes 580,000 citations for papers presented at worldwide conferences, symposia, meetings, expositions, congresses, and workshops received at The British Library.
Science Citation Index Expanded via ISI Web of knowledge UCB Only | Part of Web of Science, indexes 5,300 journals in 164 disciplines in the sciences, providing citations for articles and book reviews. You may simultaneously search Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index. Full Search, Cited Reference searching includes all the cited references (footnotes) of each article it covers and can be used to look up a reference to a work the user has identified as helpful, and identify other articles citing that work, thus retrieving related articles. Allows you to create a "Citation Alert" so you are notified by e-mail when another article cites one you have found helpful.
Dissertations and Theses (ProQuest) UCB Only | Indexes graduate dissertations from over 1,000 North American, and selected European, graduate schools and universities. Dissertations published since 1980, and master's theses since 1988, include brief abstracts written by the authors. UC Berkeley dissertations since 1996 are free for downloading. Other titles can be borrowed through interlibrary loan or purchased online in a variety of formats.
InformeDesign is a clearinghouse for design and human behavior research, a collaboration between the American Society of Interior Designers and the University of Minnesota. They produce a searchable database of research summaries in "practitioner-friendly" language that includes research-based design criteria as part of their interpretation of original research articles and reports with the aim of bringing research to practice and positively influencing the design of the built environment. The database "indexes" 100 refereed journals from about 2000 to the present. Acess is free, but registration is recommended. http://www.informedesign.org/
This is a selection of current journals that cover the topic.
- Arq: architectural research quarterly
- v.5, 2001-
via Cambridge. UC Only
Environmental Design NA2000.A765
v.1, autumn 1995-5, 2001, v.7:1-2, 2003-
- Design Issues
- v.17, 2001-
via MIT. UC Only
- v.1, 1984-
[Latest 5 years not available online] via JSTOR. UCB Only
- Selected article text for v.14, 1998-
via WilsonWeb art full text. UC Only
- Selected article text for v.13, 1997-
[Latest 4 months not available online] via EBSCO. UC Only
Environmental Design NK1160.D4754 v.1, 1984-
- Design Methods: theories, research, education and practice, 1992- . (Continues Design Methods and Theories; DMG-DRS journal; DMG newsletter.)
- Environmental Design NA1.D47.N4
- Design Research News, EDRA
- Environmental Design TH6021.D47
periodical stacks v. 23:2, 1992-
- Design Research Quarterly
- Issues available free online, 6 months after publication: http://www.designresearchsociety.org/joomla/
- Design Studies
- v. 16, 1995-
Environmental Design NK1160.D48
v.1, July 1979-v.24, Nov. 2003
- Environment and Behavior
- v.8, 1976-
via Sage. UC Only
- v.1, 1969-v.22, 1990 via PCI full text
- Selected article text for v.29, 1997-v.30,1998 via Expanded Academic ASAP
Environmental Design HM206.A1.E59, v. 1, 1969-
- Environment and planning. B, Planning & design
(Continues: Environment & planning. B)
Environmental Design NA1.E56 v.1, 1974-
- Environmental Design Research Association. Conference. Proceedings of the ... annual conference of the Environmental Design Research Association. v 1, 1969-
- Environmental Design TH6021.A1E65.E14; Cum index v.1-28
- International journal of design computing: IJDC.
- v.1, 1997/1998-
- Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. (Continues: Journal of architectural research)
- Selected article text for v.15:no.4 (winter:1998)-
via WilsonWeb art full text. UC Only
Environmental Design NA1.J631 v.1, June 1984)
- Journal of Design History
- v.1, 1988-v.12,1999 via JSTOR UC Only
- v.1, 1988-
via Oxford Univ press journals
Environmental Design NK1175.J687 v. 1, 1988-
periodical stacks; Cum index v. 1-10, 1988-1997
- The Journal of Design Research
- Sample articles available online at http://www.inderscience.com/sample.php?id=192
- Research in Engineering Design
- v.9, 1997-
- v.1, 1989 -v.8, 1996 via SpringerLink
TA174.R47 v.1, 1989-v.15, Mar 2005
This is a small selection of related associations, organizations, institutions and websites.
Architectural Research Centers Consortium (ARCC). “International association of architectural research centers committed to the expansion of the research culture and a supporting infrastructure in architecture and related design disciplines. Since its founding as a non-profit corporation in 1976, ARCC has represented a concerted commitment to the improvement of the physical environment and the quality of life.”
Building Research Establishment, U.K. “One of the UK's leading research organisations participating in a wide range of research projects funded by private industry, the UK Government, and the European Union… Provides a complete range of consultancy, testing and commissioned research services covering all aspects of the built environment, and associated industries…” http://www.bre.co.uk/
“Design Methods,” in Wikipedia, viewed Jan. 23, 2007. Overview and history.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_methods
Design Research in the Netherlands. Website and organization of the Design Systems group from Eindhoven University of Technology, they focus on design research activities in the Netherlands, across all designing domains: architecture, civil engineering, machine engineering, electronics, industrial design, fashion, graphic design, computer science, and so forth. http://www.designresearch.nl/
Design Research Society. A multi-disciplinary learned society for the design research community worldwide. Its website has pointers to many design research resources, and news about DRS, its publications and events. http://www.designresearchsociety.org/joomla/
Design Thinking Research Symposia. A series of international, annual workshops that synthesize the contributions of an international community, report current work, and identify and promote necessary further research. The symposia have resulted in a number of books and articles. http://design.open.ac.uk/cross/DesignThinkingResearchSymposia.htm
EDRA Environmental Design and Research Association. “An international, interdisciplinary organization founded in 1968 by design professionals, social scientists, students, educators, and facility managers. Purpose is the advancement and dissemination of environmental design research, thereby improving understanding of the interrelationships between people, their built and natural surroundings, and helping to create environments responsive to human needs.” http://www.edra.org/
Initiative for Architectural Research (IAR). “Established as a joint effort of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA), American Institute of Architects (AIA), and Architectural Research Centers Consortium (ARCC) as a voice advocating for the varying complexity and breadth of research being conducted by architectural practitioners, academics, and members of the building industry."
Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology. Focus on the ID program, but information on research projects and publications.