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Building & Landscape Types

This is a general and introductory guide to information sources on architectural and landscape architecture precedents, typologies, and building and landscape types, with a focus on the United States. Unless otherwise noted, materials are in the collection of the Environmental Design Library, UC Berkeley or on the Internet.

Precedents Building & Landscape Types
    • Overviews & General Works     • General Works
    • History & Theory     • Specific Building & Landscape Types
    • Search Terms       Banks       Museums
        Educational Bldgs       Offices
Typology       Garden Structures       Parks and Plazas
    • Overviews & General Works       Gardens       Recreation/Sports Bldgs
    • History & Theory       Health Facilities       Religious Bldgs
    • Search Terms       Hospitality Bldgs       Restaurants
        Houses/Housing       Stores
        Industrial Bldgs       Streets and Paths
        Libraries       Theaters
        Monuments       Transportation Bldgs
        Municipal Bldgs       Waterfronts
"The term precedent … refers to a representation of the knowledge about a past design in a form that makes it applicable or 'reusable', in new, but similar problem situations." (Classification of Precedents, Z. Aygen and U. Flemming, Pittsburgh: School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University. [1998?] viewed 2/22/2010.)

"To raise the question of typology in architecture is to raise a question of the nature of the architectural work itself…. What then is type? It can most simply be defined as a concept which describes a group of objects characterized by the same formal structure…. Architecture … is not only described by types, it is also produced through them." (Rafael Moneo, "On Typology," Oppositions n. 13:23, Summer, 1978.) Architecture students should have the "Ability to incorporate relevant precedents into architecture and urban design projects." (NAAB student performance criteria 11, Use of Precedents.)

For additional assistance see our research guides on History of Architecture, Buildings & Places, American Architecture, and Vernacular Architecture, or consult the Environmental Design Library reference staff.

UC Berkeley faculty, registered students, and staff who are off campus may use items marked UCB Only or UC Only via the Library's proxy service or the Virtual Private Network (VPN).

Compiled by Elizabeth Douthitt Byrne. Content reviewed: October 2005

Precedent

  1. Something done or said that may serve as an example or rule to authorize or justify a subsequent act of the same or an analogous kind: an authoritative example
  2. the norm for subsequent practice set by such a precedent
  3. prevailing custom established by long practice
  4. a person or thing serving as a model. (Webster's Unabridged online UCB Only.)
PRECEDENTS: Overviews & General Works (a brief selection)

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PRECEDENTS: History & Theory

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PRECEDENTS: Search Terms

Use these terms as subject words or keywords to find additional publications. Terms designated "LC" are official Library of Congress subject terms which can be used in searching OskiCat and Melvyl, the library catalogs, and may also be useful as subject or keywords in searching periodical indexes. Look for the truncation or wildcard symbol in each database you search (usually * or ?) to find variations of words, e.g., singular, plural, adjective form.

Archetyp*
Architectural design (LC)
Architectural design--History (LC)
Architecture and history (LC)
Architecture--Composition, proportion, (LC)
Architecture--Philosophy (LC)
Architecture--Theory (LC)
Precedent, architectural
Precedents
Prototype buildings

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Typology

"The classification of objects, structures, or specimens by subdividing observed populations into a theoretical sequence or series of groups (types) and subgroups (subtypes) according to consideration of their qualitative, quantitative, morphological, formal, technological, and functional attributes. Once established, typological sequences are often used as a surrogate chronology or culture history." (The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford Univ.Pr., 2002. Oxford Reference Online UCB Only.)

TYPOLOGY: Overviews, General Works & Selected Examples (a brief selection)

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TYPOLOGY: History & Theory

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TYPOLOGY: Search Terms

Use these terms as subject words or keywords to find additional publications. Terms designated "LC" are official Library of Congress subject terms which can be used in searching OskiCat and Melvyl, the library catalogs, and may also be useful as subject or keywords in searching periodical indexes.

Architectural theory (LC)
Architecture--Classification (LC)
Architecture--Theory (LC)
Architecture--Typology
Building types
Buildings--Typology
Garden Structures (LC)
Gardens--Typology
Landscape--Classification (LC)
Landscape--Typology
Morphology (LC)
[type of structure, e.g., Plazas] (LC)
[type of building]--Typology

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Building & Landscape Types & Styles

General Works

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Specific Building and Landscape Types, with Search Terms for Additional Information

Below are selected histories and/or design considerations for a few common building and landscape types. Use these terms as subject words or keywords to find additional publications. Terms designated "LC" are official Library of Congress subject terms which can be used in searching OskiCat and Melvyl, the library catalogs, and may also be useful as subject or keywords in searching periodical indexes. Combine search terms for building and landscape types with terms such as: Design and Construction; Designs and plans; History, or name of country.

Bank Buildings
Selected Search Terms:
Banks and Banking (LC)
Commercial buildings (LC)

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Educational Buildings
Selected Search Terms:
Academic libraries (LC)
Auditoriums (LC)
Campus planning (LC)
Classrooms (LC)
College buildings (LC)
Dormitories (LC)
Educational facilities
Elementary school buildings(LC)
High school buildings (LC)
Laboratories (LC)
[name of college--Buildings] (LC)
School buildings (LC)
School facilities (LC)
Schools
Student housing (LC)

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Garden Structures

See also History and Literature of Landscape Architecture.

Selected Search Terms:
Cabanas (LC)
Gazebos (LC)
Greenhouses (LC)
Sheds (LC)

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Gardens

See also History and Literature of Landscape Architecture.

Selected Search Terms:
Gardens--Design
Gardens--History
Gardens--Styles
Landscape gardening
Parks

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Health Facilities
Selected Search Terms:
Health facilities (LC)
Clinics (LC)
Hospitals (LC)

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Hospitality Buildings

See also Restaurants.

Selected Search Terms:
Bars (LC)
Casinos (LC)
Hotels (LC)
Motels (LC)
Pubs
Resort architecture (LC)
Roadside architecture (LC)
Taverns (LC)
Visitors centers(LC)

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Houses/Housing
Selected Search Terms:
Apartment buildings
Apartment houses (LC)
Architecture domestic (LC)
Condominiums (LC)
Congregate housing (LC)
Dwellings (LC)
Highrise apartment buildings (LC)
Lofts (LC)
Mobile homes ( LC)
Nursing homes (LC)
Old age homes (LC)
Public housing (LC)
Row houses (LC)
Yurts (LC)

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Industrial Buildings
Selected Search Terms:
Architecture, industrial (LC)
Factories (LC)
Industrial buildings (LC)

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Libraries

See also Library Design.

Selected Search Terms:
Academic libraries (LC)
Libraries (LC)
Library architecture (LC)
Public libraries (LC)

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Monuments
Selected Search Terms:
Funerary monuments
Holocaust memorials (LC)
Memorials (LC)
Public sculpture (LC)
Sepulchral monuments (LC)
Soldiers monuments (LC)
Tombs (LC)
War memorials (LC)

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Municipal Buildings
Selected Search Terms:
City halls (LC)
Civic buildings
Civic centers (LC)
Courthouses (LC)
Municipal buildings
[name of place--Public buildings] (LC)
Public architecture (LC)
Public buildings (LC)

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Museums
Selected Search Terms:
Art galleries, Commercial (LC)
Art museums (LC)
Childrens museums (LC)
Historical museums (LC)
Museum architecture (LC)
Museum buildings (LC)
Museums (LC)
Science museums (LC)

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Offices
Selected Subject Terms:
Commercial buildings (LC)
Office buildings (LC)
Skyscrapers (LC)

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Parks and Plazas
Selected Search Terms:
Amusement parks (LC)
Business parks (LC)
Greenbelts (LC)
National parks (LC)
Open spaces (LC)
Parks--United States--Buildings (LC)
Pedestrian areas (LC)
Playgrounds (LC)
Plazas--Typology
Recreational areas (LC)
Research parks ((LC)
Urban parks (LC)

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Recreational and Sports Facilities
Selected Search Terms:
Arenas (LC)
Baseball fields (LC)
Fairgrounds (LC)
Gymnasiums (LC)
Health resorts (LC)
Parks (LC)
Physical fitness centers (LC)
Recreation centers (LC)
Recreational areas (LC)
Sports facilities (LC)
Stadiums (LC)
Swimming pools (LC)

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Religious Buildings

See also Graduate Theological Union Library.

Selected Search Terms:
Catholic church buildings (LC)
Church architecture (LC)
Church buildings (LC)
Churches (LC)
Liturgy and architecture (LC)
Monasteries (LC)
Mosques (LC)
Protestant church buildings (LC)
Religious Facilities (LC)
Synagogues (LC)
Temples (LC)

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Restaurants
Selected Search Terms:
Bars (LC)
Cafes
Coffee shops (LC)
Coffeehouses (LC)
Delicatessens (LC)
Diners (LC)
Drive-in restaurants (LC)
Ethnic restaurants<
Fast food restaurants (LC)
Food industry and trade (LC)
Restaurants (LC)

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Stores
Selected Search Terms:
Arcades (LC)
Chain stores (LC)
Commercial buildings (LC)
Convenience stores (LC)
Farmers markets (LC)
Grocery trade (LC)
Markets (LC)
Shopping Centers (LC)
Shopping Malls (LC)
Stores, Retail (LC)
Supermarkets (LC)

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Streets and Paths
Selected Search Terms:
City planning (LC)
Garden walks (LC)
Pedestrian areas (LC)
Streets (LC)
Trails (LC)
Urban beautification (LC)

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Theaters
Selected Search Terms:
Amphitheaters (LC)
Arts facilities (LC)
Cultural centers
Drive-in theaters (LC)
Entertainment facilities (LC)
Motion picture theaters (LC)
Theater, Open-air
Theaters (LC)

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Transportation Buildings
Selected Search Terms:
Bus Terminals (LC)
Railroad stations (LC)
Roadside rest areas (LC)
Toll plazas (LC)
Transportation buildings

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Waterfronts
Selected Search Terms:
Coasts (LC),
Harbors (LC),
Piers (LC),
Water resources development (LC),
Waterfronts (LC),
Wharves (LC)

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