Plagiarism is "the uncredited use (both intentional and unintentional) of somebody else's words or ideas." --from "Avoiding Plagiarism", The OWL at Purdue
According to UC Berkeley's Code of Student Conduct, Section V.102.01, plagiarism is academic misconduct, and is grounds for disciplinary sanctions, including a failing grade, suspension or dismissal from the University.
You probably know that:
are all examples of plagiarism.
But did you also know that:
*(UCB Center for Student Conduct)
Whenever you discuss someone else's ideas, their data, or the results of their research, you must cite that work! Citations are needed for paraphrases or quotations from another's work.
Information that's common knowledge does not need a citation. But how do you know if it's common knowledge? One simple rule applies: When in doubt, cite it!
Students are caught plagiarizing and cheating on this assignment and term papers in Bio 1B every semester. This usually results in course failure and a letter placed in the student’s file which will be shared with graduate program application materials.
Citations fulfill several functions:
Full citations, or references, at the end of a paper or article need to provide the reader with enough information to find the work that's referred to.
There are hundreds of different ways to format citations, and they vary among disciplines (humanities, sciences, social sciences, etc.). In the sciences, it's common for peer-reviewed journals to have their own citation styles. Usually, professors will specify what citation style they'd like students to follow for an assignment.
Important note for the Bio 1B library assignment:
Citations for the assignment should follow the format given below, which is a modified version of the style for the journal Bioscience.
Please note: In the citations for this assignment:
Author last name Author first initial Author middle initial(s). Publication year. Article title. Journal title Volume(Issue): Page numbers.
Journal article, three authors or fewer:
Smith RF, Alexander LC, Lamp WO. 2009. Dispersal by terrestrial stages of stream insects in urban watersheds: A synthesis of current knowledge. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28(4): 1022-1037.
Journal article, more than three authors:
Mueller GM, Wu Q, Huang Y, et al. 2001. Assessing biogeographic relationships between North American and Chinese macrofungi. Journal of Biogeography 28(2): 271-281.
Journal article with subtitle, no issue number:
Koehl MAR, Strother JA, Reidenbach MA, et al. 2007. Individual-based model of larval transport to coral reefs in turbulent, wave-driven flow: Behavioral responses to dissolved settlement inducer. Marine Ecology Progress Series 335: 1-18.
Journal article published online only, with an article number rather than page numbers:
Ali-Murthy Z, Lott SE, Eisen MB, et al. 2013. An essential role for zygotic expression in the pre-cellular Drosophila embryo. PLoS Genetics 9(4): e1003428.
Osterrieder A. 2013. The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences. Plant Methods 9: 26.
There are a number of style manuals, some designed especially for bioscience literature, located in the Bioscience Library’s reference area and on the web.
Read more about styles:
Basic elements of web citations:
[AAMC] Association of American Medical Colleges. 1995-2012. (5 June 2012; www.aamc.org)Online document available on university program or department website:
Chou L, McClintock R, Moretti F, et al. 2003. Technology and Education: New Wine in New Bottles: Choosing Pasts and Imagining Educational Futures. (5 June 2012; www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html)
Page from a website, no author identified, no date:
The Talk.Origins Archive: Must-read FAQs. (5 June 2012; www.talkorigins.org/origins/faqs-mustread.html)
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